Obey or Be Persuaded, that is the Question

 

“Obey your leaders….” Hebrews 13:17a

Following up on the post, Follow the Leader, where we looked at Hebrews 13:7, we now arrive at Hebrews 13:17 to examine the closing passage of the inclusio in chapter 13.

In our first passage we saw the commands for the recipients of the letter to remember, consider, and imitate their leaders, defined as those who spoke the word of God to them.  Here in this passage it would appear the response has advanced from emulation to subordination.  That apparent shift should give us pause to consider our interpretation carefully.  The difficulty hinges on the word “obey”.

All major English translations use this same word, but because of the difficulty squaring this with the context that we’ve seen so far, a wise suggestion is to look at the semantic range, or glosses, of the Greek word, peitho, and consider if obey fits the context best.

According to Strong’s concordance, we find the following outline for the range of possible meanings

  1. persuade
    1. to persuade, i.e. to induce one by words to believe
    2. to make friends of, to win one’s favor, gain one’s good will, or to seek to win one, strive to please one
    3. to tranquilize
    4. to persuade unto i.e. move or induce one to persuasion to do something
  2. be persuaded
    1. to be persuaded, to suffer one’s self to be persuaded; to be induced to believe: to have faith: in a thing
      1. to believe
      2. to be persuaded of a thing concerning a person
    2. to listen to, obey, yield to, comply with
  3. to trust, have confidence, be confident

As seen above, obey is certainly an option, though perhaps less frequently used.  In fact, of the 55 occurences of this word in the New Testament (KJV Concordance), only 8 times it is translated as obey.  By the way, 22 times it is translated as persuade, 8 times as trust, 8 times related to confidence (this is according to the KJV count, as per blueletterbible.org).  For comparison, the word (or those related) occurs in the NASB 64 times in 55 verses, translated as obey four times, Romans 2:8, Galatians 5:7, Hebrews 13:17, and James 3:3.

(As a side note: in Greek mythology, which predates the New Testament writing, Peitho was the Greek Goddess of Persuasion.  This of course is not authoritative, only provides some cultural context towards a possible meaning)

Given the list of possibilities, why choose obey?

Typically in translation, the context determines which gloss best fits. When we hear or use obey in the English language we immediately think of authority and subordination as in, “Children obey your parents” “Servants obey your masters”, these however use a different Greek word.  Interestingly, peitho  was used earlier in Hebrews 6:9 and again in verse 18.  Below are the ESV translations

Though we speak in this way, yet in your case, beloved, we feel sure of better things—things that belong to salvation.

18 Pray for us, for we are sure that we have a clear conscience, desiring to act honorably in all things.

Of all the possible meanings for the word in our verse, peitho – obey – seems to be the weakest in that it carries an idea of subordination that is not supported by the context.   Instead, a better fit would be, “be persuaded or believe” your leaders, as it clearly relates to their speaking of the word of God.  The authority is God’s Word, not the leader.  Even here, the persuasion is not towards the leader, but towards the leader’s speaking of God’s Word.

Obey or be persuaded, that is the interpretive question in this passage.  If one assumes ecclesiastical authority and the reads the meaning of the English word obey into the passage, then it is not difficult to arrive at most translations and commentaries.  However, if we allow the context and the meaning of the actual words to interpret the passage, we arrive at a different conclusion.

In the next post, we’ll examine the second command from this verse, ‘submit’.  For more, see the recent video on Pastoral Authority by John MacArthur

 

By the Spirit

 

“The choicest believers, who are assuredly freed from the condemning power of sin, ought yet to make it their business all their days to mortify the indwelling power of sin.

The principal efficient cause of the performance of this duty is the Spirit: “If by the Spirit.”  The Spirit here is the Spirit mentioned in verse 11, the Spirit of Christ, the Spirit of God, that “dwells in us,” verse 9, that “quickens us,” verse 11; “the Holy Ghost,” verse 14; the “Spirit of adoption,” verse 15; the Spirit “that maketh intercession for us,” verse 26.  All other ways of mortification are in vain, all helps leave us helpless; it must be done by the Spirit.  Men, as the apostle intimates, Rom. ix. 30-32, may attempt this work on other principles, by means and advantages administered on other accounts, as they always have done, and do: but, saith he, “This is the work of the Spirit; by him alone is it to be wrought, and by no other power is it to be brought about.”  Mortification from a self-strength, carried on by ways of self-invention, unto the end of a self-righteousness, is the soul and substance of all false religion in the world.”  – John Owen, The Mortification of Sin in Believers, Vol. 6, pg. 7

Commenting on Romans 8:13

Doctrine: The Dirty Word of Modern Evangelicals

 

Originally published January 13, 2015.

The other morning during my daily commute I was listening to a local Christian radio broadcast and was struck by two consecutive statements regarding Christian’s and doctrine. The first was a commercial from a local car dealership stating something along the lines of “People are not saved by believing a system of doctrine, but through faith in Jesus Christ.” This probably needed qualification, but fair enough…for now.

Immediately after that commercial, the next scheduled program began with an introduction of an anti-doctrinal statement and then the speaker began (the sermon?) with a quote from a questionable book, paraphrased as follows: “I don’t know a lot about doctrine. I’m just not inclined in that direction. But I have been able to take the word of God and apply it to my everyday life and I have had a lot of wonderful experience with God and from that simple, child-like experience with God, I would like to share with you how you can be a happy Christian.”

The speaker reaffirmed this by stating “That’s me!” And goes on to say “I think its sad when all people hear is more and more doctrine and it’s not that I don’t think we need good solid doctrine. You need to know why you believe what you believe. But we have to know how to live. And so, I heard more about the doctrinal side of grace and not the practical side of grace”

And so we have the elevation of experience and feeling above the sound, objective, doctrinal truths of Scripture. It’s this perspective that is so prevalent among believers and churches today. You’ve likely heard it expressed in different ways; perhaps, “Doctrine divides; Christ unites” or from a popular mega-church pastor, “No Creed but Christ,” which is laced with irony because in itself it’s a creedal statement. Too often this artificial chasm between unity and truth is the driving factor for divorcing doctrine from the church.  Martin Luther once famously quipped, “It is better to be divided by truth than united by error.” Can anyone argue that Luther took an anti-doctrinal, pro-unity stance at the expense of standing for the truth? Absolutely not. He fought for doctrinal truth at all costs, even if it cost him his life.

In our day, one could make a strong argument that this anti-doctrinal sentiment is the majority report in much of what calls itself evangelicalism. I know personally that those who hold these particular anti-doctrinal views have sometimes accused me of only wanting to talk about doctrine and I’ve had people counter doctrinal statements by saying they are just a simple Christian who reads the Bible and has no theological education or desire to understand or learn doctrine.

I suppose the majority of those who hold to this stance are largely ignorant of what doctrine is and are blind to the pervasiveness of which doctrine is used in Scripture, the doctrinal statements expressed in Scripture, and the summary doctrinal statements about the Scripture. Simply stated, a doctrine is a summary statement or belief about a particular biblical truth.  For instance, stating the Bible is God’s Word is a doctrinal statement. If you believe and say, “The Bible is the Word of God” you’ve just expressed in condensed terms the Doctrine of Inspiration, i.e. that the Bible is the God-breathed Word (2 Timothy 3:16). To divorce oneself from this doctrinal position for the sake of the artificial façade of unity leaves one standing not on the Word of God, but on quicksand.

A second example is the Doctrine of the Trinity. Think that’s not important? As a Christian, please tell me who it is you believe in apart from the Triune God? If you do not explain that the Creator God of all the universe is triune, distinct in person but one in essence as Father, Son and Holy Spirit, it is not doctrine that you’ve abandoned, but orthodoxy, nigh you’re promoting another god.  So we can see in these two brief examples that doctrine is not opposed to faith, unity, or even Christianity, but is indeed integral because it helps summarize and explain what it is that we believe.

Consider the following statement by the Apostle Paul writing under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, “11 And he gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the shepherds and teachers, 12 to equip the saints for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ, 13 until we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ, 14 so that we may no longer be children, tossed to and fro by the waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by human cunning, by craftiness in deceitful schemes. 15 Rather, speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in every way into him who is the head, into Christ, 16 from whom the whole body, joined and held together by every joint with which it is equipped, when each part is working properly, makes the body grow so that it builds itself up in love.” Ephesians 4:11-16

Paul is not contributing to the false chasm between unity and doctrine, instead he is pointing out the theological vacuum that takes place when good doctrine is absent. Notice what he says in this passage:

  1. God has given Apostles, prophets, evangelists, shepherds and teachers for the purpose of:
    1. Equipping the saints
    2. Building up the body of Christ
    3. Leading the body to the unity of faith and the knowledge of the Son of God
    4. To mature manhood
    5. Complete in Christ
    6. To avoid being tossed around by errant doctrine
      1. By human deception
      2. Craftiness
      3. Deceitful schemes
    7. Contrary to this we are to speak the truth in love
  2. This is how the Body of Christ, in all its parts, are built up in love

God has given the Church ministers of the Word and their job is to instruct, teach, exhort, and rebuke. What are they to teach? Doctrine. For the purpose of helping their flock mature and avoid the dangers of false doctrine. Observe what Paul tells his young disciple Timothy at his church:

  • “As I urged you when I was going to Macedonia, remain at Ephesus so that you may charge certain persons not to teach any different doctrine, 4 nor to devote themselves to myths and endless genealogies, which promote speculations rather than the stewardship from God that is by faith.” 1 Timothy 1:3-4 and 8 Now we know that the law is good, if one uses it lawfully, 9 understanding this, that the law is not laid down for the just but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for those who strike their fathers and mothers, for murderers, 10 the sexually immoral, men who practice homosexuality, enslavers, liars, perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine, 11 in accordance with the gospel of the glory of the blessed God with which I have been entrusted.” 1 Timothy 1:8-11 Paul is not warning Timothy against those who teach doctrine, but those who teach false doctrine and makes explicit mention of the good purposes of sound doctrine.
  •  “Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons, 2 through the insincerity of liars whose consciences are seared, 3 who forbid marriage and require abstinence from foods that God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4 For everything created by God is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with thanksgiving, 5 for it is made holy by the word of God and prayer. 6 If you put these things before the brothers, you will be a good servant of Christ Jesus, being trained in the words of the faith and of the good doctrine that you have followed. 7 Have nothing to do with irreverent, silly myths. Rather train yourself for godliness” 1 Timothy 4:1-7 Again, Paul has warned Timothy of those who will enter the church teaching false doctrine. He is not speaking against doctrine, but false doctrine. He once again contrasts these various false teachings with the statement that Timothy was trained in good doctrine (vs. 6) that he has followed.
  • “16 Take heed to yourself and to the doctrine. Continue in them, for in doing this you will save both yourself and those who hear you.” 1 Timothy 4:16 NKJV Here, Paul explicitly states that Timothy’s doctrine, i.e. the sound, truthfulness of Scripture, will save both himself and those who hear him.
  • “Let all who are under a yoke as bondservants regard their own masters as worthy of all honor, so that the name of God and the teaching may not be reviled. 2 Those who have believing masters must not be disrespectful on the ground that they are brothers; rather they must serve all the better since those who benefit by their good service are believers and beloved. Teach and urge these things. 3 If anyone teaches a different doctrine and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching that accords with godliness, 4 he is puffed up with conceit and understands nothing. He has an unhealthy craving for controversy and for quarrels about words, which produce envy, dissension, slander, evil suspicions, 5 and constant friction among people who are depraved in mind and deprived of the truth, imagining that godliness is a means of gain.” 1 Timothy 6:1-5 Notice here who it is that is creating division and disunity. It’s not those who teach the sound doctrine of Christ, that which accords with godliness. No, it is those who teach a different doctrine, i.e. a false doctrine. Those who teach false doctrine are puffed up with conceit and understand nothing. It is they who desire controversy and quarrel about words. Those who are of sound doctrine are to confront and rebuke these false teachers.

When the Apostle addresses Titus and encourages him in the establishment of his church he writes on the qualifications of elders who “must hold firm to the trustworthy word as taught, so that he may be able to give instruction in sound doctrine and also to rebuke those who contradict it.” Titus 1:9 This is precisely consistent with the message given to Timothy, that those who are pastors/elders/shepherds/teachers must teach sound doctrine, “But as for you, teach what accords with sound doctrine” Titus 2:1; not abandoning doctrine; not marginalizing or ostracizing those who teach doctrine; but rebuking those who teach false doctrine. Again, this is a theological vacuum. Abandoning sound doctrine for the sake of anything, even unity, does not simply leave a void. It is always replaced with bad doctrine.

The only anti-doctrinal statements that the Bible makes has to do with false, unsound doctrine, not the avoidance of doctrine altogether. There is no such thing as “No Doctrine”. There is only “Good Doctrine” and “Bad Doctrine”. When good doctrine leaves, bad doctrine inevitably takes its place.

Anti-doctrinal sentiments are the heart of liberalism and no one fought this battle more fiercely than Charles Spurgeon. What was known as “The Downgrade Controversy” was Spurgeon’s all-out assault against the doctrinal decline of the Baptist Union. The Downgrade referred to the slippery slope or “Downgrade” away from “essential evangelical doctrines.”[1] Concerning this, Spurgeon wrote,

“We are glad that the article upon ‘The Down Grade’ has excited notice.… Our warfare is with men who are giving up the atoning sacrifice, denying the inspiration of Holy Scripture, and casting slurs upon justification by faith.”

When doctrine is abandoned for the sake of anything else, the sure footing of truth turns slippery and the slide naturally ends in apostasy.

In his article commenting on the Downgrade, Erroll Hulse writes, “The emphasis in the churches was on evangelism, missions and practical social work. Doctrine was taken for granted and its importance minimized.”[2] He cites specifically the decline in Calvinism, “a coherent well-knit body of truth” in favor of higher criticism as what led to a theological vacuum.

Spurgeon cited the abandonment of three chief doctrines as central to the Downgrade Controversy: 1) Biblical infallibility 2) Substitutionary Atonement 3) The finality of judgment for unbelievers. How could the church expect to stand in the midst of the advance of liberalism apart from a staunch doctrinal defense?

Simply put, they couldn’t, nor can they now.

This historical example should serve us well as a caution against the anti-doctrine rhetoric that is so prevalent today. Doctrine is never merely absent; ignore the promotion and advancement of sound doctrine and false doctrine worms its way in. This was as true in the Apostle Paul’s day as it was in Spurgeon’s and certainly ours today. If doctrine had been abandoned the young apostolic church would have had no foundation. If doctrine had been abandoned the early church fathers would have floundered instead of holding fast in the face of such heresies as denying the divinity of Christ or the truthfulness of the Old Testament. If doctrine had been abandoned there would have been no Reformation and Christianity would have remained a slave to Rome. If doctrine had been abandoned, liberalism would have won out the 19th and 20th centuries. If doctrine is abandoned now, we’ll be swallowed up by secularism that seeks to undermine scripture at every turn.

History is a fascinating thing. Someone once said that “those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” That’s precisely where we are today, once again in need of a Reformation and once again faced with the daunting task of confronting those on the Downgrade within the church who shrink away from teaching sound doctrine.

 

 

[1] http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/1991/issue29/2931.html

[2] http://www.reformation-today.org/papers/CHS&downgrade.pdf