Category Archives: Hebrews

The Typology of Hebrews 9

 

Perhaps more than any other book of the Bible, Hebrews highlights for us what is known as biblical typology. Typology in the Bible is a method of interpreting Scripture in the light of Scripture itself wherein a relationship is established between people, places, events, or institutions and other people, places, events or institutions. The relationship represents an argument from the lesser to the greater and is often found in discussion of how the Old Testament relates to the New Testament. Usually, the lesser (type) points to the greater (antitype) and most often refers to either Christ or His work on the cross.

Typology has sometimes been accused of being allegorical, but this is a misrepresentation because typology finds its foundation in actual, historical people, places, events, or institutions. Sometimes typology is clearly spelled out for the biblical student such as in John 3:14-15 where Jesus says, “And as Moses lifted up the serpent in the wilderness, so must the Son of Man be lifted up, 15that whoever believes in him may have eternal life.” So Jesus identifies the event of Moses lifting up the serpent in the wilderness as the type, and the event of His crucifixion as the antitype. Likewise, the representation of the serpent being “lifted up” finds its greater reality in the “lifting up” of Christ on the cross. In typology, much like in the reading of parables, it’s important not to force every single detail from the lesser into the reality of the greater. So in this example, there is no reason to force meaning of the use of the serpent onto Christ beyond what is expressed by Scripture.

Sometimes, typology is not quite as clear as the explicit example mentioned above and this is perhaps where some have entered into a zone of speculation, which unfortunately has likely led to criticism of typology as means to biblical interpretation. One classic example of this erroneous use of relationships is the scarlet cord hung from Rahab’s window during the Israelite’s siege on Jericho (see Joshua 2):18). Some have ventured into the realm of allegory by suggesting that the cord represents the blood of the Passover lamb and ultimately the blood of Christ. As this reasoning goes, Rahab and her family were saved on the basis of Christ’s blood, which is symbolized in the scarlet cord. As interesting as this sounds, it’s highly speculative and has difficulty connecting the lesser to the greater.

With these examples and warnings in mind, we come to the book of Hebrews and find typology consolidated for us by the author. Typology in Hebrews really comes to the forefront in chapter 3, so there is much that could be said concerning the wilderness generation, Moses, the Sabbath rest of God, not to mention the typological relationship between Christ and the Levitical priesthood and Christ and Melchizedek. Leaving those discussions for another day, we come to Hebrews chapter 9 to find the consolidation of many Old Testament types with their greater reality, their antitype, the Lord Jesus Christ.

Note how this chapter begins:

“Now even the first covenant had regulations for worship and an earthly place of holiness. For a tent was prepared, the first section, in which were the lampstand and the table and the bread of the Presence. It is called the Holy Place. Behind the second curtain was a second section called the Most Holy Place, having the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered on all sides with gold, in which was a golden urn holding the manna, and Aaron’s staff that budded, and the tablets of the covenant. Above it were the cherubim of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Of these things we cannot now speak in detail.

These preparations having thus been made, the priests go regularly into the first section, performing their ritual duties, but into the second only the high priest goes, and he but once a year, and not without taking blood, which he offers for himself and for the unintentional sins of the people. By this the Holy Spirit indicates that the way into the holy places is not yet opened as long as the first section is still standing (which is symbolic for the present age). According to this arrangement, gifts and sacrifices are offered that cannot perfect the conscience of the worshiper, 10 but deal only with food and drink and various washings, regulations for the body imposed until the time of reformation.”

The first 10 verses of the chapter lay the groundwork for our discussion by presenting the details of the sacrificial system under the Old Covenant. The author has spent the previous chapters highlighting the superiority of Christ as the new and better High Priest, superior over the Levitical priesthood, as well as His superiority over the Melchizedekian priesthood which was the basis for the oath of Christ’s own Priesthood (Psalm 110). In this chapter, he builds upon the superiority of the New Covenant over the Old Covenant by reminding his readers of the bloody, repeated sacrifices that were commanded under the Old Covenant.

Though summarized above, the details of the sacrifices under the Old Covenant can be found in the books of the Law, namely Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers. Obviously a reading of those books would only aide in our understanding of what is being discussed in the introduction to chapter 9 of Hebrews; more on that in a minute. Without going into great detail, we may observe that the Old Covenant sacrificial system involved a priest, a tabernacle (later a temple) divided by a veil into an outer (Holy Place) and inner (Most Holy Place) section, sacrifices (bulls, goats, lambs, etc.), and various appurtenances such as an altar, the ark of the covenant, cherubim over the mercy seat, lampstand, table, and showbread.

The process of sacrifice is summarized in verses 6-10 as the priest is said to have gone in regularly into the first section. These were the daily sacrifices as required under the law. Only the high priest, once a year, could enter into the Most Holy Place with blood; first for himself and then for the unintentional sins of the people. Even within this description we see the narrowing of the process from priests to priest, from the outer area to the inner area and from regular sacrifices to once a year. Entering into the Most Holy was an exclusive, rare occasion and is so described by the author of Hebrews.

Key to our discussion here and to the meaning of the passage, particularly the mention of the Old Covenant sacrificial details are verses 8-9a, “By this the Holy Spirit indicates that the way into the holy places is not yet opened as long as the first section is still standing (which is symbolic for the present age).” The author here, under the divine inspiration of the Holy Spirit has indicated for us that all the Old Covenant sacrifices, tabernacles, priesthoods, etc. were “symbolic for the present age.” The actual word being used here is parabole (ESV renders this – symbolic), from which we get our word parable. As it relates to our discussion of typology, often times Scripture uses different words to express this relationship, whether it be type (Romans 5:14), shadow (Col. 2:17), copy (Hebrews 8:5), or parabole meaning symbol as in this passage; other words used include: prefigured, symbolizes, representation, or pattern, to name a few. So then we see that the summary given in verses 1-7 is actually a cliff-notes version of the Old Covenant sacrificial system which collectively pointed towards Christ in a typological manner and individually certain features (people, places, events, institutions) were a type, literally a parable, pointing forward to Christ.

This should radically transform how we read our Old Testaments. Instead of getting bogged down or even avoiding books such as Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, or even Deuteronomy, we should rejoice as we read through them knowing that the pictures being painted through the brushstrokes of the Holy Spirit leave us with the expectation of something far greater than the blood of bulls and goats, the imperfection of the priests, the repetitive nature of the sacrifices, or the restricted access to the presence of God in the Holy of Holies. All of those things (and more) are but a shadow or type of the greater reality that is in Jesus Christ. When you read these Old Testament books, fight against the desire to get lost or to let your mind wander. Instead, ask how the bloody sacrifices are insufficient and conversely how Christ’s is far superior. Take note of the endless work of the priests in contrast to finished work of Christ who is now seated at the right hand of the Father after making His sacrifice once for all. Observe how God was so detailed in His description of the tabernacle and know that its beauty pales in comparison with the True Tabernacle, the one made without human hands. All Scripture is God-Breathed, not just the parts we may prefer or find interesting and all Scripture points to Christ because all of the promises of God find their yes and amen in Him.

 

Dull of Hearing

 

Following the context of the declaration of Christ as High Priest that we looked at in a previous post, the author of Hebrews now switches his attention to the spiritual apathy of his audience. Before he continues his exposition on the typological relationship between Melchizedek and the Lord Jesus Christ, he feels compelled to address the dullness of hearing that is plaguing the Jewish Christians to whom he is writing.

11 About this we have much to say, and it is hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing. 12 For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the basic principles of the oracles of God. You need milk, not solid food, 13 for everyone who lives on milk is unskilled in the word of righteousness, since he is a child. 14 But solid food is for the mature, for those who have their powers of discernment trained by constant practice to distinguish good from evil.” Hebrews 5:11-14

In verse 11, the flow of discussion concerning the high priestly office of Christ, particularly in His fulfillment of the Melchizedekian type, “About this we have much to say” is interrupted sharply by the author, “and it is hard to explain, since you have become dull of hearing.” His comment here is not a reference to the difficulty he faces in explaining the relationship between Christ and Melchizedek, rather the difficulty lies in his hearers grasping the teaching because their spiritual ears have become dull.

It may help our understanding of the message of Hebrews by noting the cultural difficulties that the Jewish Christians were facing at this time and the purpose and motives of the author. For lack of a better term, the time period between Christ’s earthly ministry (~30-33 AD) and the destruction of the temple (70 AD) could be considered a transitional period, i.e. from the Old Covenant to the New Covenant, keeping in mind that much of the Judaism of the patriarchs had been corrupted into a system of works righteousness by the time of Christ. Many of those to whom this epistle is addressed were in danger of slipping back into their former Judaic practices. The author of Hebrews has set out to declare the superiority of Christ over the types and shadows that pointed forward to His coming, namely through the administration of the Old Covenant. With this in mind, the slip back into Judaism was an abandonment of the reality of Christ in favor of the types and shadows with which they had become accustomed. Therefore, when we arrive at such a declaration of Christ as High Priest, superior over the Aaronic priesthood and typological of the Melchizedekian priesthood, we can see how this would have been a radical doctrine for the first century Jews to grasp, particularly if they had become apathetic in their Christian faith. What had been hidden in the Old Testament types and shadows, namely Christ, was now revealed through His ministry (Luke 24). Before the author of Hebrews can expand upon what he has introduced, it is of necessity that the hearers of his message become spiritually attuned to what he has to say if there is to be any hope of understanding.

Spiritual ears to hear is a pervasive theme, particularly in the gospels. In Mark 4:9 we read of our Lord’s declaration, “he who has ears to hear let him hear” The use of hearing in Hebrews draws the reader back to Hebrews 1:1 and has been used in each of the two previous exhortations, 2:1 and 3:15 as an admonition to listen carefully.  There is an ever present danger of those who have been exposed to the hearing of God’s Word for years, yet it now fails to move them.

We turn by way of exhortation to the expectation of progress that the readers of the epistle were to have had, “For though by this time you ought to be teachers, you need someone to teach you again the basic principles of the oracles of God.” The Christian faith knows nothing of the status quo; nothing of drifting or stagnation. No, indeed it is faith marked with progress, growth in both knowledge of God and practical wisdom and application of this knowledge. Simply stated orthodoxy leading to orthopraxy, or right doctrine for right living.

Concerning the expectation of becoming a teacher, the author of Hebrews is not writing about the official teaching capacity of those who have been called to this church office, rather the expectation is that all believers must be teachers. This is the fulfillment of the Great Commission (Matthew 28:18-20) and is not limited to a select few who have the gift of teaching. We are called to teach our neighbors, teach our children, our friends, all those with whom God brings into our path. That is the expectation that the author is carrying forward to his audience in beginning his exhortation, but they had failed in this regard and now required to be taught again “the basic principles of the oracles of God”. This phrase will be further defined in the subsequent verses but is referred to here as milk as opposed to solid food.

God’s Word contains both milk and solid food so it’s important for us to not denigrate milk in favor of meat, as both are necessary to good health. Though a baby is unable to digest meat, limited early on to only milk, there is an expectation that he will one day be eating solid food.  Still the balance of milk in his diet is necessary. So too in our spiritual appetite for God’s Word. There are foundational teachings of Christ and the gospel that are milk, which we never progress beyond but instead prepare us for the digestion of meat.  In this context the meat seems to refer, at least in part, to the understanding of Christ as High Priest after the order of Melchizedek.

The Apostle Paul, writing his epistle to the Romans, likewise uses the phrase “oracles of God” in reference to the advantages that the Jews had, Much in every way. To begin with, the Jews were entrusted with the oracles of God. Romans 3:2 Here it would seem, as in our passage from Hebrews 5, that the oracles of God refers to the entire corpus of the Old Testament revelation. Oracles in both case is a translation of the Greek word logion related to the word logos and is also found in Acts 7:38 in reference to the oracles of God received by Moses at Sinai and 1 Peter 4:11 in reference to the oracles of God be spoken by those who serve in that capacity. We can see then in general it has reference to the revelation of God, particularly that which has been inscripturated.

Continuing the contrast between milk and solid food we read, “for everyone who lives on milk is unskilled in the word of righteousness, since he is a child. 14 But solid food is for the mature, for those who have their powers of discernment trained by constant practice to distinguish good from evil.” Those who are content to ingest only the milk of the Word are as children, unskilled (literally untrained or inexperienced) in the word of righteousness. This particular phrase, much like the oracles of God, will be further illumined in subsequent verses, but would seem to follow along the lines of the contrast that’s being made. Those who feed on solid food have their senses (powers) of discernment trained by constant practice and are able to distinguish good from evil. Therefore, they are skilled in the word of righteousness. This would seem to imply that this particular phrase has in mind an ethical or moral behavior that flows directly out of an understanding of biblical doctrine. In other words, righteousness here can be a reference to both the believer’s justification and their subsequent righteous actions to discern good from evil. The author’s use of the phrase, “to distinguish good from evil” should bring to mind Genesis 3:22, “Behold, the man has become like one of us in knowing good and evil.” Being skilled in the word of righteousness is far more than an intellectual assent, it is putting into practice what God has revealed through the power of the Holy Spirit causing us to be more like Christ.

As this passage continues to unfold, it will lead into one of the most difficult and controversial passages in the Bible that is at the heart of Hebrews 6. For now, the message of this passage of Hebrews is so closely related to the post on the anti-doctrinal movement of evangelicals that I once again want to draw from Pilgrim’s Progress and Christian’s encounter at the foot of the hill with Simple, Sloth, and Presumption. This section from Bunyan’s work is included below:

I saw then in my dream, that he went on thus, even until he came at the bottom, where he saw, a little out of the way, three men fast asleep, with fetters upon their heels. The name of the one was Simple, of another Sloth, and of the third Presumption.

Christian then seeing them lie in this case, went to them, if peradventure he might awake them, and cried, you are like them that sleep on the top of a mast, Prov. 23:34, for the Dead Sea is under you, a gulf that hath no bottom: awake, therefore, and come away; be willing also, and I will help you off with your irons. He also told them, If he that goeth about like a roaring lion, 1 Pet. 5:8, comes by, you will certainly become a prey to his teeth. With that they looked upon him, and began to reply in this sort: Simple said, I see no danger; Sloth said, Yet a little more sleep; and Presumption said, Every tub must stand upon its own bottom. And so they lay down to sleep again, and Christian went on his way.

Yet he was troubled to think that men in that danger should so little esteem the kindness of him that so freely offered to help them, both by awakening of them, counseling of them, and proffering to help them off with their irons.

In a similar fashion, the hearers of the epistle to the Hebrews had fallen into the trap of slothfulness which is in opposition to doctrinal progression and depth of understanding. Their slothfulness in turn led to their satisfaction of a simplistic understanding of God’s Word. Following on, they had come to presume upon their salvation and as we will see in the unpacking of Hebrews 6, this has eternally dangerous consequences. May the warning bell of this passage ring loudly in our ears and may God grant us the desire in our hearts for solid food, that we may be skilled in the word of righteousness and have our senses trained by rightly applying God’s word in every area of our lives unto the obedience of faith.

 

 

Christ our Great High Priest

 

The book of Hebrews is largely dedicated to establishing the supremacy of Christ’s person and the superiority of Christ’s work over against the Old Covenant for the purpose of exhorting Jewish professors of Christ from returning to the former system which had become largely corrupt by the time of this epistle’s writing. The author establishes the authority for his message on the prior revelations of the word of God and rests on Scripture alone to speak in defense of his message. In doing so, he relies on the familiarity of the Scriptures, which his readers likely had, allowing him to build off of them and show clearly the similarity and superiority of Christ.

Perhaps this is seen most clearly in the establishment of Christ as High Priest. Notions of Christ’s fulfillment of this priestly office can be seen from the very beginning of this epistle through the language of Hebrews 1:3 “After making purification for sins,” Hebrews 2:11 “For he who sanctifies and those who are sanctified all have one source,” and Hebrews 2:17-18 “17 Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. 18 For because he himself has suffered when tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted.” While these passages offer hints of more to come, the real exposition on the priesthood of Christ is developed in chapter 5, beginning in verse 1,

1For every high priest chosen from among men is appointed to act on behalf of men in relation to God, to offer gifts and sacrifices for sins. 2 He can deal gently with the ignorant and wayward, since he himself is beset with weakness. 3 Because of this he is obligated to offer sacrifice for his own sins just as he does for those of the people. 4 And no one takes this honor for himself, but only when called by God, just as Aaron was.

5So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him,

“You are my Son,

today I have begotten you”;

6 as he says also in another place,

“You are a priest forever,

after the order of Melchizedek.”

7 In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. 8 Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered. 9And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 10 being designated by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek.”

This discourse begins by providing a reminder of the Aaronic Priesthood established under the Old Covenant. Several passages present a helpful background to aid in this understanding, Exodus 28, Leviticus 9, Leviticus 16, Numbers 16; 18, 2 Samuel 7:13-14. The features of this older priesthood are enumerated by the author:

  • Chosen from among men
  • To act on behalf of men (in relation to God)
  • To offer gifts and sacrifices for sins
  • Beset by weaknesses; allows him to relate
  • Offers sacrifices for his own sins
  • Not self-appointed, but called by God

Interestingly, this passage follows the chiastic structure(1), named from the greek letter chi represented by an X, to better illustrate the point of superiority that the author is hoping to make. The use of this literary device, the chiasm, is meant to create a mirror of a particular idea or concept. Generally the most important point can be found in the middle of the “X”. This can be seen below(2):

A The old office of high priest (v.1)

B The sacrifice offered by the high priest (v.1)

C The weakness of the high priest (vv. 2-3)

D The appointment of the high priest (v. 4)

D` The appointment of Christ, the new High Priest (vv. 5-6)

C` The suffering of the new High Priest (vv. 7-8)

B` The sacrificial provision of the new High Priest (v. 9)

A` The new office of High Priest

As the passage transitions from the Aaronic priesthood (vs. 4) to the priesthood of Christ (vs. 5), we can begin to see the aforementioned similarities and superiorities, beginning with the appointment of Christ to the priesthood by His Father:

5So also Christ did not exalt himself to be made a high priest, but was appointed by him who said to him,

“You are my Son,

today I have begotten you”;

6 as he says also in another place,

“You are a priest forever,

after the order of Melchizedek.”

7 In the days of his flesh, Jesus offered up prayers and supplications, with loud cries and tears, to him who was able to save him from death, and he was heard because of his reverence. 8 Although he was a son, he learned obedience through what he suffered. 9And being made perfect, he became the source of eternal salvation to all who obey him, 10 being designated by God a high priest after the order of Melchizedek.”

The features of this newer priesthood are enumerated by the author:

  • Christ’s Priesthood was an appointment to the priesthood by God the Father.
  • Christ’s Priesthood is grounded in His Sonship.
  • Christ’s Priesthood is based on the authority of God’s Word.
  • Christ’s Priesthood is eternal.
  • Christ’s Priesthood is “after the order of Melchizedek” not Levi (Aaron).
  • Christ’s humanity AND Divinity are essential to His Priesthood.
  • Christ’s Priesthood is not beset by “weakness”; instead His is marked by His impeccability.
  • Christ’s Priesthood is efficacious and salvific.

Jesus was declared to be priest on the divine orders of His Father and the author of Hebrews points out that this declaration was recorded in the older testament, specifically Psalm 2 and Psalm 110. This quotation is interesting because it grounds the authority of Christ’s office as High Priest in the Scriptures and again references Psalm 2:7 to show that just has His kingship flowed forth from His Sonship, so too does His priesthood.

The relationship between the Aaronic (Levitical) priesthood and Christ’s priesthood can best be understood as typical, meaning that the Levitical priesthood was a type pointing forward to the antitype or greater reality that is Christ’s priesthood. Christ was a man like Aaron, but the God-Man (greater). By establishing Christ as High Priest after the order of Melchizedek, we can observe another great reality, namely that His Priesthood was pre-Mosaic law (covenant). Melchizedek was both king and priest, providing a type for better understanding the relationship of Christ as Priest-King, bringing together both offices and fulfilling the prophecies of Psalm 110. The Melchizedekian priesthood will be further defined by the author of Hebrews in chapter 7 and following, but we may conclude with an observation by A.W. Pink. In his commentary on this epistle, he notes that the Aaronic priesthood was typical of Christ in an earthly fashion. i.e. Christ being both the priest and the sacrifice once for all, while the Melchizedekian priesthood was typical of Christ’s in a heavenly fashion, as He rules now as both Priest and King.

What a glorious Savior! He who serves as both the sacrifice and the Priest now seated at the right hand of the Father having begun His heavenly session to make intercession for His people. Would that we would understand how powerful and significant this is in our lives as believers.  May it draw us nearer to Christ and cause us to love Him more.

 

[1] A chiasm (also called a chiasmus) is a literary device in which a sequence of ideas is presented and then repeated in reverse order. The result is a “mirror” effect as the ideas are “reflected” back in a passage. Each idea is connected to its “reflection” by a repeated word, often in a related form. The term chiasm comes from the Greek letter chi, which looks like our letter X. Chiastic pattern is also called “ring structure.”

Read more: http://www.gotquestions.org/chiasm-chiastic.html#ixzz3OvjR4HZz

[2] Modified from George Guthrie, The NIV Application Commentary: Hebrews (Zondervan, Grand Rapids MI), 1998.