Category Archives: Bible Study

The Folly of Will Worship


One of the key themes in the Old Testament, and really all of Scripture, is worship.  It is useless to read of who God is and what He has done, is doing, or will do, if it does not lead us to worship.

Beginning in the book of Genesis, worship is central as the God WHO creates reveals that He is worthy of worship, and then that this same God has determined HOW He will be worshiped by His creation.  Adam and Eve’s failure in the Garden was primarily a failure of proper worship.  In Genesis 2, Adam was instructed to “work” and “keep” the Garden, both words in the Hebrew conveying the priestly functions of “minister” and “guard” (see Num. 3:7-8).  A priest, as we know, was given charge to mediate the worship of God.

Fast Forward some 2500+ years, to the infant stages in Israel’s history, and again we see the centrality of worship (Exodus 32:1-6).  As Moses ascended Mt. Sinai to receive the Law of God, including regulations for worship, the people had given themselves over to the folly of will-worship.  Here, the principle offender is Aaron, who leads the people into this false system of man-made worship.  Aaron’s construction of the golden calf was bad enough, but he went a step further in declaring that this lifeless idol was the god who had delivered Israel from Egypt, “These are your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.” Ex. 32:4  Not satisfied with the violation of the newly minted First, Second , and Third Commandments, Aaron next instituted an unsanctioned day and feast, accompanied by sacrifices, to this graven image.  As would be expected, this unapproved worship provoked the wrath of God.

Fast forward again, around 400-500 years later, to a time when the nation of Israel was fracturing into two kingdoms, the North – called Israel, with its capital in Samaria, and the South – called Judah, with its capital and original center of worship remaining in Jerusalem.  In the North, comprised of 10 Israelite tribes (excluding Judah and Benjamin), Jeroboam is made king and almost immediately constitutes unsanctioned, man-made worship (see 1 Kings 12:19-33).  Echoing the scene described above from Exodus, Jeroboam fashions golden calves to prevent the Northern Kingdom from turning, “back to the house of David” by rightfully sacrificing at the temple, as God had commanded.

“‘You have gone up to Jerusalem long enough.  Behold your gods, O Israel, who brought you up out of the land of Egypt.’  And he set one in Bethel, and the other he put in Dan.”  1 Kings 12:28

Jeroboam, following in the footsteps of Aaron, created a worship of his own to replace that which God had ordained.  “He also made temples on high places and appointed priests from among all the people, who were not of the Levites.  And Jeroboam appointed a feast on the fifteenth day of the eighth month like the feast that was in Judah, and he offered sacrifices on the altar.” 1 Kings 12:31-32

This scene of Jeroboam’s own folly of will-worship is perhaps best summarized by the statement, “that he had devised in his own heart.”  Jeroboam set the course for decades of idolatrous worship in Israel.  Collectively, their failure to repent and turn from Jeroboam’s folly eventually led to their exile and ultimately their destruction.  Their exile was the punishment of a failure to worship God as He had commanded.

21 When he had torn Israel from the house of David, they made Jeroboam the son of Nebat king. And Jeroboam drove Israel from following the Lord and made them commit great sin. 22 The people of Israel walked in all the sins that Jeroboam did. They did not depart from them, 23 until the Lord removed Israel out of his sight, as he had spoken by all his servants the prophets. So Israel was exiled from their own land to Assyria until this day.” 2 Kings 17:21-23

Bringing this theme of worship to the New Testament, in Colossians 2:23, the King James Version translates the Greek word ethelothreskia (e-the-lo-thra-ske’-ä) as “will-worship.”  According to Thayer’s lexicon, this word is defined as, “worship which one devises and prescribes for himself, contrary to the contents and nature of the faith which ought to be directed to Christ”.  This definition describes perfectly the examples shown above where will-worship was imposed upon the worship that God had commanded.  While Colossians has little to do with golden calves and worship on high places, nevertheless, it is concerned with worship, specifically false, man-made worship.

In Colossians 2, we read of 4 specific warnings regarding worship, before the Apostle arrives at his concluding statement against “will-worship”.  The first occurs in 2:4 and warns of the dangers and influence of human wisdom.  Next, in 2:8, we read that believers, Colossae in particularly, should be on guard against the influence and practices of human tradition.  Third, in 2:16 the Apostle reaches a summary point, therefore, and exhorts believers to guard against human opinion.  Finally, in 2:18, he warns against the dangerous influence of human experience.  Each of these four warnings apply specifically to the context of worship, or perhaps more accurately when believers gather together.  Just like for Colossae they are warnings for us to guard against these influences in our own gatherings.

It’s often easy to see that God regulated His worship in the Old Testament, specifically through the giving of the law.  It’s therefore no surprise to read of the consequences that God levied against those who profess to be His people when they violated his commands for worship.  However, sometimes when we arrive at the New Testament, we are guilty of forgetting that this same God continues to take His worship seriously.  Everything that we do must be regulated by the Word of God, otherwise, we will fall prey to human wisdom, human tradition, human opinion, and/or, human experience.

Will God’s wrath against will-worship be provoked any less today than it was in the days of Aaron or Jeroboam?

Lest we be quick to dismiss this, let us be reminded that this letter with warnings for the Colossians was to be shared with the church at Laodicea (see Colossians 4:16; 2:1), the same Laodicea of the strongest warning given by our Lord in Revelation 3:14-22.  Clearly then, God’s concern for right worship has not waned one iota.

Though a topic for another day, the Apostle concludes his section on worship in his letter to Colossae with a positive command for when believer’s gather

16 Let the word of Christ dwell in you richly, teaching and admonishing one another in all wisdom, singing psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, with thankfulness in your hearts to God. 17 And whatever you do, in word or deed, do everything in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him.”  Colossians 3:16-17



Of Right Eyes and Right Hands


27 “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery.’ 28 But I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lustful intent has already committed adultery with her in his heart. 29 If your right eye causes you to sin, tear it out and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body be thrown into hell. 30 And if your right hand causes you to sin, cut it off and throw it away. For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body go into hell. Matthew 5:27-30

In the passage cited above, our context is the opening chapter of what is commonly referred to as the Sermon on the Mount.  Here, our Lord is instructing His disciples (the Twelve; see verse 1) by correcting the faulty teaching of the Jewish religious leaders concerning the law.  To this, He adds several points of interpretation and application of the Law of God.  It’s important to understand that Jesus is neither changing the law, nor is He reinterpreting it, as some have asserted.  He is, however, restating the law and providing much needed clarification to the original meaning and intentions behind the law as opposed to the erroneous teachings of the law by the Scribes and Pharisees.  Their focus on external (Matt. 23:26) deeds had created a culture of legalism.  Jesus’ exposition exposes these errors and provides for us a clear understanding of how the law is to be applied.  Additionally, we must note that in His exposition on the law, our Lord is not abolishing the Law, rather He fulfills and upholds (see vs. 5:17-20).

His first point of explanation concerns murder and while the physical act is certainly in view (6th Commandment), the spirit of the law indicates that anger in the heart towards a brother is worthy of equal judgment in the eyes of God.  Despite so many thinking that Christ has added or reinterpreted the law, His explanation is precisely what the law teaches.  The 10th Commandment, Exodus 20:17, states, “You shall not covet….”  One cannot covet by external actions; instead this is an act purely motivated by sinful desires of the heart and should’ve clued the religious leaders to the “heart” of the law.

Moving to the next section of the sermon, we arrive at our passage cited above, where our Lord turns His attention towards adultery, with a specific application of lust.  Here we see the 7th Commandment in view, as Jesus applies it directly to the heart and the intentions of men.  Just as the act of physical adultery is worthy of punishment in the eyes of God for violating His law, so too is adultery of the heart, or lustful intentions of the heart.  The error of the Jewish religious leaders was to strictly interpret this commandment to apply only to the married (adultery) and then only to the physical act.  In viewing this in such a strict manner, it actually created a liberal application and opened the avenue for unbridled fornication.

Within the same passage, we have what might be summarized as The Principle of Elimination.  It’s an extreme illustration of how to deal with those members that offend, presumably as it relates to lust (remember the context).  The first offending member is the right eye.  With the eye, we are told that should it offend, or lead the rest of the body into sin, eliminate it by plucking it out.  Clearly this is meant to imply that the eye is the window or the avenue through which objects of lust enter.  By plucking it out, the avenue for this access is eliminated.

Next, the right hand.  Should it offend, or act out in sin, eliminate it by cutting it off.  The implication here may be broad, but certainly it includes any physical manifestation of lustful intentions that the hand (or actions) might bring about.  In order to avoid this, Jesus says the offending member should be cut off.  Each instance of elimination is summarized with the following statement, “For it is better that you lose one of your members than that your whole body be thrown into hell.”  In summary, should gangrene (sin) infect the hand, cut it off before it spreads to the rest of the body.

While it’s important to understand that Jesus isn’t instructing his disciples, or by extension those who read His words today, to run home and begin plucking out their eyes and cutting off their hands, we needn’t dismiss the seriousness and extremeness of this language.  Given our Lord’s previous words, that both murder and adultery are matters of the heart and not just physical actions, we know restraint should be exercised before we go plucking eyes and sawing off hands.  This was the error of Jews, Origen, and many of those who enlisted in the ranks of the monastery, each of whom engaged in some form of self-flagellation.

However, if we consider that Jesus’s focus is on the heart, what do we make of this figurative language that focuses on the physical body, i.e. offending members?

First, we shouldn’t neuter the passage of its shocking implications.  Jesus is being extreme for the purpose of saving our souls at the expense of our bodies, that point should not be missed.  Aside from actually maiming our bodies, which would still leave an active and sinful heart, I do think that there is a principle of elimination at work here, as we previously mentioned.  This principle states that if something is causing us to sin, we should radically eliminate it, stopping short of physical harm to ourselves or others.  Yes, this still leaves a heart whose desires need changed, but it also removes opportunities to feed the flesh and opportunities to act out desires of the flesh.

In Romans 13:14 we read, “But put on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make no provision for the flesh, to gratify its desires.”  This idea of provision here refers to plans, accommodations, etc.  It is these avenues or opportunities for sin that I’m suggesting our Lord has in mind for us to eliminate, i.e. to cut off.  Meanwhile there is work to be done, heart work, and that work is not completed by removing temptations or opportunities to sin from our lives.  That work is completed by the ongoing sanctification of the Holy Spirit to purify the heart, change desires, and set a course of passionate pursuit for the Almighty God.

It is with Him that we must plead for our hearts to change; that the Lord would, “create in us a clean heart” Psalm 51:10; that He would continue to work in us, “both to will and to work and to do His good pleasure” Philippians 2:13; that “He who began a good would bring it to completion” Philippians 1:6.

What avenues in your life need radically eliminated?  This may look different for each person, but if there are specific areas that are causing you to sin or be tempted to sin, don’t wait.  Cut. them. off.

Then seek the Lord pleading for Him to continue to purify and cleanse your heart of idols.

Soli Deo Gloria

12 Purposes for Affliction


Throughout the course of the monologues and dialogues in the book of Job there are at times points of wisdom and clarity and at other times less than helpful opinions and poorly applied theology.  Utilizing one of our interpretive keys of holding onto the good and leaving bad, as it pertains to the speeches, allows the reader to comb through them gleaning truths that are rightly applied in the case of Job’s affliction and similarly may be applied to situations of affliction in our lives.

One such example are the references to God’s purposes in bringing about affliction.  Sometimes these occur as a passing reference intermingled in the midst of rambling speeches, which may be largely unhelpful, while other times they are the focal point as part of a larger discourse on God’s good designs.  Below is a list of these occurrences with a brief discussion providing context of the speaker and their implied purpose

1.Job 5:17-18.

“Behold, blessed is the one whom God reproves; therefore despise not the discipline of the Almighty.  For he wounds, but he binds up; he shatters, but his hands heal.”

Ironically, the first clear explanation of God’s designs in affliction comes from the mouth of Eliphaz, Job 5:8-16, in the first response to Job.  Here, Eliphaz offers advice for Job to seek the face of God, which is followed by an excellent discourse on the wisdom and supremacy of God.  In verses 17-18, cited above, the direction shifts towards the circumstances of the afflicted as a result of the discipline of God.

Here, as in Proverbs 3:11-12 as well as Hebrews 12:5, God has designed affliction to serve as a disciplinary action for His children.  Remember that this discipline is not punitive, but corrective.

2. Job 17:9

Yet the righteous holds to his way,
    and he who has clean hands grows stronger and stronger.

Though perhaps more obscure than the previous purpose, we find in the midst of Job’s lament from Chapter 17 that his affliction is being observed by others, the righteous, who see him as an encouraging example of perseverance in the midst of affliction.  God’s design for affliction among His children is to be exemplary, either as a model for how to suffer or to serve as a warning to others.

3. Job 23:10

But he knows the way that I take;
    when he has tried me, I shall come out as gold.”

Here we see the refining purpose for affliction, to purify the child of God, burning off the dross of sin resulting in a purer gold.

4.  Job 30:11

Because God has loosed my cord and humbled me,
    they have cast off restraint in my presence.”

In this next example, we find the words of Job concluding that his case of affliction has served to humble him.

5.  Job 33:17-18

17 that he may turn man aside from his deed
    and conceal pride from a man;
18 he keeps back his soul from the pit,
    his life from perishing by the sword.

In this passage, God’s mouthpiece for declaring His purposes in affliction shifts from those brief mentions in the speeches of Job and Eliphaz to Elihu.  This begins a string of declarative purposes for affliction by him, perhaps providing us another clue as to the helpfulness of his speeches.

In this first purpose for affliction from Elihu we find that it serves as a corrective to turn a child of God from wickedness, pride, and ultimately death (as a result of sin).

6. Job 33:27-30

29Behold, God does all these things,
    twice, three times, with a man,
30 to bring back his soul from the pit,
    that he may be lighted with the light of life.

Again, a word from Elihu, he now states the purpose of God in affliction is preventative, specifically from total destruction of the soul.  Not only that, but to set the soul on the path of life.

7. Job 34:26-27.

He strikes them for their wickedness
    in a place for all to see,

because they turned aside from following him
    and had no regard for any of his ways

Our third purpose from the mouth of Elihu provides for us, in context, a focus now upon the wicked, or more clearly, the apostate whom God afflicts because they have turned aside from following Him.  As we know, affliction is not limited to the righteous, nor is it exclusive of the wicked, but God applies it to both according to His own plan and purpose.

8. Job 36:10-11 

10He opens their ears to instruction
    and commands that they return from iniquity.
11 If they listen and serve him,
    they complete their days in prosperity,
    and their years in pleasantness.
12 But if they do not listen, they perish by the sword
    and die without knowledge.

Here our context, again in a speech from Elihu, shows God’s purpose in elevating the righteous to the status of kings, yet then by necessity afflicting them to expose pride.  In essence, when God pours out blessings on the righteous and they in turn become arrogant and prideful, God is pleased to afflict them in order to instruct them and turn them from their sins.  Interestingly, with this particular application of affliction we find that it has a tendency to bring one to a crossroad.  On the left, the response of the righteous to God’s affliction by listening and serving Him resulting in a complete, full life.  On the right, the response of ignoring God, resulting in death (here by the sword) and dying without knowledge, perhaps affirming their false confession of faith.

9. Job 36:15-16

15He delivers the afflicted by their affliction
    and opens their ear by adversity.
16 He also allured you out of distress
    into a broad place where there was no cramping,
    and what was set on your table was full of fatness.”

Again we read the words of Elihu and find now God’s purposes in affliction described as discipline and educative.

10. Job 36:22

21Take care; do not turn to iniquity,
    for this you have chosen rather than affliction.
22 Behold, God is exalted in his power;
    who is a teacher like him?

As this speech from Elihu concludes, we enter into three less direct descriptions of God’s purposes in affliction beginning here with its use as a teaching tool.  In our cases of affliction, as with Job, God uses it to teach us about Himself first, and then subsequently about ourselves.

11. Job 37:7

He seals up the hand of every man,
    that all men whom he made may know it.

The second implied purpose from Elihu’s latter speech is to hedge in man.  Sometimes God may use affliction as a form of restraint, in a sense to protect us from ourselves.

12. Job 37:13

Whether for correction or for his land
    or for love, he causes it to happen.

Finally, the context for this last purpose places us in the midst of a section describing God’s superintendence of nature.  We find here the whirlwind, cold, ice, clouds with moisture, and lightning.  God’s usage of these may be for correction, for (maintenance) of the land, or simply for love.  In short, nature is at his beckoning call to do His will as He sees fit.

Certainly we may search the Scriptures and find further examples of God’s purposes in afflicting either His saints or the wicked.  But suffice to say, those who have walked away from Job unsatisfied with answers to why God afflicts the righteous, have simply not seen clearly both the explicit and implicit purposes described throughout the book.  Drawing our minds to these will provide comfort and wisdom for those occasions when we are faced with our own afflictions.