Category Archives: Theology

A Kingdom Leadership Paradigm

 

In our Lord’s earthly ministry, there is much that could be commented on from the records that we have in the synoptic gospels and the Gospel of John.  In fact, it is this latter gospel account that informs us that had everything about Jesus’ ministry been written down, there wouldn’t be enough books to contain them.  However, there is one particular theme about Jesus’ ministry that touches everything else He had to say and came to do, a theme that we’ll summarize as a Kingdom Paradigm (pair-a-dime).

A paradigm, in it’s most common meaning and usage, is defined as a clear or typical example, properly speaking an archetype or pattern.  Under the administration of the Old Covenant, there were certainly patterns and examples as well, but those reach their completion in Christ Jesus.  Not only did the Lord come to fulfill those old patterns and examples, but by establishing a kingdom paradigm, He came to upset or alter how we view this world and each other in His Kingdom.

Perhaps more than the other gospels, Matthew is intent upon describing and defining the Kingdom of God (properly, the “Kingdom of Heaven”).  This is summarized with the verse highlighting the beginning of Jesus’ ministry, “And he went throughout all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom and healing every disease and every affliction among the people.”  Additionally, the founding principles of this Kingdom Paradigm are found in Matthew 5:1-7:29, which is commonly referred to as The Sermon on the Mount.

By the time we reach Matthew 18 in the account of our Lord’s ministry, we are given the Kingdom Paradigm regarding relationships in the Christian Community.  One aspect of these relationships that’s specifically addressed is leadership and authority within the community.  The baseline for this particular facet of the Kingdom Paradigm comes by way of a question asked by the disciples, “Who is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven?” (Matt. 18:1)  Depending on how Jesus answered this question, would define for us the paradigm, or pattern, of the kingdom.

Notice our Lord’s response below

And calling to him a child, he put him in the midst of themand said, “Truly, I say to you, unless you turn and become like children, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven. Whoever humbles himself like this child is the greatest in the kingdom of heaven. Matthew 18:2-4

This instruction on humility, as the entrance requirement into the kingdom, sets the tone for the next three chapters which outline and describe the nature of kingdom relationships, including kingdom leadership.  Likely because Jesus had yet to fully open their eyes to this unfolding paradigm, the disciples fail to grasp the simplicity of this reordering, that one must become like a child, and are given second opportunity to comprehend it in the chapter that follows

13 Then children were brought to him that he might lay his hands on them and pray. The disciples rebuked the people, 14 but Jesus said, “Let the little children come to me and do not hinder them, for to such belongs the kingdom of heaven.”15 And he laid his hands on them and went away. Matthew 19:13-15

Reiterating the statement made earlier on a humble child being the greatest in the kingdom, on this occasion the disciples were given a tangible example, but again failed to fully comprehend the message.

A third example for the establishment of this new Kingdom Paradigm, comes by way of a parable, but nevertheless brings us to the same conclusion.  This parable, referred to as the “Laborers in the Vineyard” is found in Matt. 20:1-16 and addresses the principle of equality in the Kingdom, regardless of when someone enters.  Jesus’ concluding statement on this parable serves again to highlight the paradigm we’ve been discussing, “So the last will be first, and the first last.” Matthew 20:16

A fourth example for this re-ordering of cultural structure and one which lands more clearly on the nature of leadership in the Christian community, builds on both the two earlier passages where Jesus indicates that that one must become like a child to enter the Kingdom and the third passage, where last is first and first is last.  This particular example comes from Matthew 20:20-28

20 Then the mother of the sons of Zebedee came up to him with her sons, and kneeling before him she asked him for something. 21 And he said to her, “What do you want?” She said to him, “Say that these two sons of mine are to sit, one at your right hand and one at your left, in your kingdom.” 22 Jesus answered, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I am to drink?”They said to him, “We are able.” 23 He said to them, “You will drink my cup, but to sit at my right hand and at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared by my Father.” 24 And when the ten heard it, they were indignant at the two brothers. 25 But Jesus called them to him and said, “You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. 26 It shall not be so among you. But whoever would be great among you must be your servant, 27 and whoever would be first among you must be your slave, 28 even as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”

Such a request from a misguided, albeit well-intentioned mother, harkens our minds back to the opening question in this section from Matthew’s gospel account, “Who is the greatest?”  This question had already been answered, those with the humility of a child are the greatest.  The low are high, the high are low.  The rich are poor, the poor are rich.  The last are first, the first are last.  This is the Kingdom Paradigm and it most certainly applies to leadership, the servants are the leaders.

While we will look at this particular passage from Matthew 20 in greater detail in a follow-up post, suffice it to say that the Kingdom leadership paradigm, outlined here by our Lord, was  contrary to the nature of worldly leadership then, “the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority” and it is contrary to the nature of worldly leadership now.  Summarily, kingdom leadership is not top-down, authoritarianism, but bottom-up, servant-hood.  This, as we will see, is not the same thing as the popular, modern notion of a servant leader, or more clearly that  leaders serve.  Instead, it is that your servants are your leaders.

Jesus’ Kingdom Paradigm is intended to cause us to view the world through an upside down or inverted kingdom lens.  What the world perceives as the proper ordering of society is power, class, or wealth.  And what they perceive as the proper ordering of leadership is authority and domination.  What Jesus establishes as the paradigm for the Christian society is to be like a child.  In kingdom leadership it is humility and service.  The very pattern for this is His own life-giving service (deaconing = [diakoneo] – more on this later) which stands as the ultimate paradigm for the kingdom and the model for how we relate to one another in our Christian communities.

 

 

Who are your Leaders

 

Having already addressed the first part of a difficult, and sometimes abused passage, from Hebrews 13:17 (see the post Obey or Be Persuaded), we need to examine the meaning of the second half of the verse, “obey your leaders and submit to them….” However, before proceeding into the translation and meaning of submit, it would do us well to review what our Lord had to say regarding leadership during His earthly ministry.  Whatever else the New Testament says regarding “church leaders” must flow downstream from the kingdom paradigm that Jesus established.

Below are  two critical passages concerning the nature of leadership, according to the kingdom paradigm of Jesus Christ.  Notice how He dismantles the present religious leadership and then rebuilds with kingdom principles.

First is Matthew 20:20-28

20 Then the mother of the sons of Zebedee came up to him with her sons, and kneeling before him she asked him for something. 21 And he said to her, “What do you want?” She said to him, “Say that these two sons of mine are to sit, one at your right hand and one at your left, in your kingdom.” 22 Jesus answered, “You do not know what you are asking. Are you able to drink the cup that I am to drink?”They said to him, “We are able.” 23 He said to them, “You will drink my cup, but to sit at my right hand and at my left is not mine to grant, but it is for those for whom it has been prepared by my Father.” 24 And when the ten heard it, they were indignant at the two brothers. 25 But Jesus called them to him and said, “You know that the rulers of the Gentiles lord it over them, and their great ones exercise authority over them. 26 It shall not be so among you. But whoever would be great among you must be your servant, 27 and whoever would be first among you must be your slave, 28 even as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”

Second is Matthew 23:1-12

23 Then Jesus said to the crowds and to his disciples, “The scribes and the Pharisees sit on Moses’ seat, so do and observe whatever they tell you, but not the works they do. For they preach, but do not practice.They tie up heavy burdens, hard to bear, and lay them on people’s shoulders, but they themselves are not willing to move them with their finger. They do all their deeds to be seen by others. For they make their phylacteries broad and their fringes long, and they love the place of honor at feasts and the best seats in the synagogues and greetings in the marketplaces and being called rabbi by others.

But you are not to be called rabbi, for you have one teacher, and you are all brothers.And call no man your father on earth, for you have one Father, who is in heaven. 10 Neither be called instructors, for you have one instructor, the Christ. 11 The greatest among you shall be your servant. 12 Whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.

How do these passages inform the nature of leadership in our modern churches?

Is a leader a servant or is a servant a leader?

Are those in “offices” or who bear titles, pastor, elder, shepherd, bishop, deacon, de facto leaders because of their position?

What is the nature of authority among believers?

Is their a hierarchical leadership or authority structure among believers?

Before one can build a framework for leadership based on such passages as 1 Timothy 3 or Titus 1, or even difficult passages such as Hebrews 13:17, we must come to an understanding of the kingdom leadership principles that Jesus laid out which were counter-cultural and counter man-centered religiosity.  The difficulty, and it is real, is to view these passages without the influence of culture or our own religious experiences and preferences.

 

Doctrine: The Dirty Word of Modern Evangelicals

 

Originally published January 13, 2015.

The other morning during my daily commute I was listening to a local Christian radio broadcast and was struck by two consecutive statements regarding Christian’s and doctrine. The first was a commercial from a local car dealership stating something along the lines of “People are not saved by believing a system of doctrine, but through faith in Jesus Christ.” This probably needed qualification, but fair enough…for now.

Immediately after that commercial, the next scheduled program began with an introduction of an anti-doctrinal statement and then the speaker began (the sermon?) with a quote from a questionable book, paraphrased as follows: “I don’t know a lot about doctrine. I’m just not inclined in that direction. But I have been able to take the word of God and apply it to my everyday life and I have had a lot of wonderful experience with God and from that simple, child-like experience with God, I would like to share with you how you can be a happy Christian.”

The speaker reaffirmed this by stating “That’s me!” And goes on to say “I think its sad when all people hear is more and more doctrine and it’s not that I don’t think we need good solid doctrine. You need to know why you believe what you believe. But we have to know how to live. And so, I heard more about the doctrinal side of grace and not the practical side of grace”

And so we have the elevation of experience and feeling above the sound, objective, doctrinal truths of Scripture. It’s this perspective that is so prevalent among believers and churches today. You’ve likely heard it expressed in different ways; perhaps, “Doctrine divides; Christ unites” or from a popular mega-church pastor, “No Creed but Christ,” which is laced with irony because in itself it’s a creedal statement. Too often this artificial chasm between unity and truth is the driving factor for divorcing doctrine from the church.  Martin Luther once famously quipped, “It is better to be divided by truth than united by error.” Can anyone argue that Luther took an anti-doctrinal, pro-unity stance at the expense of standing for the truth? Absolutely not. He fought for doctrinal truth at all costs, even if it cost him his life.

In our day, one could make a strong argument that this anti-doctrinal sentiment is the majority report in much of what calls itself evangelicalism. I know personally that those who hold these particular anti-doctrinal views have sometimes accused me of only wanting to talk about doctrine and I’ve had people counter doctrinal statements by saying they are just a simple Christian who reads the Bible and has no theological education or desire to understand or learn doctrine.

I suppose the majority of those who hold to this stance are largely ignorant of what doctrine is and are blind to the pervasiveness of which doctrine is used in Scripture, the doctrinal statements expressed in Scripture, and the summary doctrinal statements about the Scripture. Simply stated, a doctrine is a summary statement or belief about a particular biblical truth.  For instance, stating the Bible is God’s Word is a doctrinal statement. If you believe and say, “The Bible is the Word of God” you’ve just expressed in condensed terms the Doctrine of Inspiration, i.e. that the Bible is the God-breathed Word (2 Timothy 3:16). To divorce oneself from this doctrinal position for the sake of the artificial façade of unity leaves one standing not on the Word of God, but on quicksand.

A second example is the Doctrine of the Trinity. Think that’s not important? As a Christian, please tell me who it is you believe in apart from the Triune God? If you do not explain that the Creator God of all the universe is triune, distinct in person but one in essence as Father, Son and Holy Spirit, it is not doctrine that you’ve abandoned, but orthodoxy, nigh you’re promoting another god.  So we can see in these two brief examples that doctrine is not opposed to faith, unity, or even Christianity, but is indeed integral because it helps summarize and explain what it is that we believe.

Consider the following statement by the Apostle Paul writing under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, “11 And he gave the apostles, the prophets, the evangelists, the shepherds and teachers, 12 to equip the saints for the work of ministry, for building up the body of Christ, 13 until we all attain to the unity of the faith and of the knowledge of the Son of God, to mature manhood, to the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ, 14 so that we may no longer be children, tossed to and fro by the waves and carried about by every wind of doctrine, by human cunning, by craftiness in deceitful schemes. 15 Rather, speaking the truth in love, we are to grow up in every way into him who is the head, into Christ, 16 from whom the whole body, joined and held together by every joint with which it is equipped, when each part is working properly, makes the body grow so that it builds itself up in love.” Ephesians 4:11-16

Paul is not contributing to the false chasm between unity and doctrine, instead he is pointing out the theological vacuum that takes place when good doctrine is absent. Notice what he says in this passage:

  1. God has given Apostles, prophets, evangelists, shepherds and teachers for the purpose of:
    1. Equipping the saints
    2. Building up the body of Christ
    3. Leading the body to the unity of faith and the knowledge of the Son of God
    4. To mature manhood
    5. Complete in Christ
    6. To avoid being tossed around by errant doctrine
      1. By human deception
      2. Craftiness
      3. Deceitful schemes
    7. Contrary to this we are to speak the truth in love
  2. This is how the Body of Christ, in all its parts, are built up in love

God has given the Church ministers of the Word and their job is to instruct, teach, exhort, and rebuke. What are they to teach? Doctrine. For the purpose of helping their flock mature and avoid the dangers of false doctrine. Observe what Paul tells his young disciple Timothy at his church:

  • “As I urged you when I was going to Macedonia, remain at Ephesus so that you may charge certain persons not to teach any different doctrine, 4 nor to devote themselves to myths and endless genealogies, which promote speculations rather than the stewardship from God that is by faith.” 1 Timothy 1:3-4 and 8 Now we know that the law is good, if one uses it lawfully, 9 understanding this, that the law is not laid down for the just but for the lawless and disobedient, for the ungodly and sinners, for the unholy and profane, for those who strike their fathers and mothers, for murderers, 10 the sexually immoral, men who practice homosexuality, enslavers, liars, perjurers, and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine, 11 in accordance with the gospel of the glory of the blessed God with which I have been entrusted.” 1 Timothy 1:8-11 Paul is not warning Timothy against those who teach doctrine, but those who teach false doctrine and makes explicit mention of the good purposes of sound doctrine.
  •  “Now the Spirit expressly says that in later times some will depart from the faith by devoting themselves to deceitful spirits and teachings of demons, 2 through the insincerity of liars whose consciences are seared, 3 who forbid marriage and require abstinence from foods that God created to be received with thanksgiving by those who believe and know the truth. 4 For everything created by God is good, and nothing is to be rejected if it is received with thanksgiving, 5 for it is made holy by the word of God and prayer. 6 If you put these things before the brothers, you will be a good servant of Christ Jesus, being trained in the words of the faith and of the good doctrine that you have followed. 7 Have nothing to do with irreverent, silly myths. Rather train yourself for godliness” 1 Timothy 4:1-7 Again, Paul has warned Timothy of those who will enter the church teaching false doctrine. He is not speaking against doctrine, but false doctrine. He once again contrasts these various false teachings with the statement that Timothy was trained in good doctrine (vs. 6) that he has followed.
  • “16 Take heed to yourself and to the doctrine. Continue in them, for in doing this you will save both yourself and those who hear you.” 1 Timothy 4:16 NKJV Here, Paul explicitly states that Timothy’s doctrine, i.e. the sound, truthfulness of Scripture, will save both himself and those who hear him.
  • “Let all who are under a yoke as bondservants regard their own masters as worthy of all honor, so that the name of God and the teaching may not be reviled. 2 Those who have believing masters must not be disrespectful on the ground that they are brothers; rather they must serve all the better since those who benefit by their good service are believers and beloved. Teach and urge these things. 3 If anyone teaches a different doctrine and does not agree with the sound words of our Lord Jesus Christ and the teaching that accords with godliness, 4 he is puffed up with conceit and understands nothing. He has an unhealthy craving for controversy and for quarrels about words, which produce envy, dissension, slander, evil suspicions, 5 and constant friction among people who are depraved in mind and deprived of the truth, imagining that godliness is a means of gain.” 1 Timothy 6:1-5 Notice here who it is that is creating division and disunity. It’s not those who teach the sound doctrine of Christ, that which accords with godliness. No, it is those who teach a different doctrine, i.e. a false doctrine. Those who teach false doctrine are puffed up with conceit and understand nothing. It is they who desire controversy and quarrel about words. Those who are of sound doctrine are to confront and rebuke these false teachers.

When the Apostle addresses Titus and encourages him in the establishment of his church he writes on the qualifications of elders who “must hold firm to the trustworthy word as taught, so that he may be able to give instruction in sound doctrine and also to rebuke those who contradict it.” Titus 1:9 This is precisely consistent with the message given to Timothy, that those who are pastors/elders/shepherds/teachers must teach sound doctrine, “But as for you, teach what accords with sound doctrine” Titus 2:1; not abandoning doctrine; not marginalizing or ostracizing those who teach doctrine; but rebuking those who teach false doctrine. Again, this is a theological vacuum. Abandoning sound doctrine for the sake of anything, even unity, does not simply leave a void. It is always replaced with bad doctrine.

The only anti-doctrinal statements that the Bible makes has to do with false, unsound doctrine, not the avoidance of doctrine altogether. There is no such thing as “No Doctrine”. There is only “Good Doctrine” and “Bad Doctrine”. When good doctrine leaves, bad doctrine inevitably takes its place.

Anti-doctrinal sentiments are the heart of liberalism and no one fought this battle more fiercely than Charles Spurgeon. What was known as “The Downgrade Controversy” was Spurgeon’s all-out assault against the doctrinal decline of the Baptist Union. The Downgrade referred to the slippery slope or “Downgrade” away from “essential evangelical doctrines.”[1] Concerning this, Spurgeon wrote,

“We are glad that the article upon ‘The Down Grade’ has excited notice.… Our warfare is with men who are giving up the atoning sacrifice, denying the inspiration of Holy Scripture, and casting slurs upon justification by faith.”

When doctrine is abandoned for the sake of anything else, the sure footing of truth turns slippery and the slide naturally ends in apostasy.

In his article commenting on the Downgrade, Erroll Hulse writes, “The emphasis in the churches was on evangelism, missions and practical social work. Doctrine was taken for granted and its importance minimized.”[2] He cites specifically the decline in Calvinism, “a coherent well-knit body of truth” in favor of higher criticism as what led to a theological vacuum.

Spurgeon cited the abandonment of three chief doctrines as central to the Downgrade Controversy: 1) Biblical infallibility 2) Substitutionary Atonement 3) The finality of judgment for unbelievers. How could the church expect to stand in the midst of the advance of liberalism apart from a staunch doctrinal defense?

Simply put, they couldn’t, nor can they now.

This historical example should serve us well as a caution against the anti-doctrine rhetoric that is so prevalent today. Doctrine is never merely absent; ignore the promotion and advancement of sound doctrine and false doctrine worms its way in. This was as true in the Apostle Paul’s day as it was in Spurgeon’s and certainly ours today. If doctrine had been abandoned the young apostolic church would have had no foundation. If doctrine had been abandoned the early church fathers would have floundered instead of holding fast in the face of such heresies as denying the divinity of Christ or the truthfulness of the Old Testament. If doctrine had been abandoned there would have been no Reformation and Christianity would have remained a slave to Rome. If doctrine had been abandoned, liberalism would have won out the 19th and 20th centuries. If doctrine is abandoned now, we’ll be swallowed up by secularism that seeks to undermine scripture at every turn.

History is a fascinating thing. Someone once said that “those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” That’s precisely where we are today, once again in need of a Reformation and once again faced with the daunting task of confronting those on the Downgrade within the church who shrink away from teaching sound doctrine.

 

 

[1] http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/1991/issue29/2931.html

[2] http://www.reformation-today.org/papers/CHS&downgrade.pdf