Tag Archives: Bible Translations

Behold Our God

 

In 2011 I was serving as the interim youth group minister at my local church. In order to inform the other youth workers and leaders on the direction and leadership that they should expect during my interim role, I called a meeting and a member of senior leadership attended also. One of the first items of business was to unify our usage of Bible versions and in doing so distance ourselves from the latest version of the New International Version (NIV), around which there had already been much debate over the neutering of language and shift to gender inclusive language. At the time, there had already been much discussion within our local body and broader evangelicalism concerning this latest version. I’ve written elsewhere about the differences in translations, including a brief background of translation philosophy to help determine which translation is right for you.

In my discussion of the translations, I was unprepared for the push-back I received regarding my stance against this latest version of the NIV and my pro-English Standard Version (ESV) usage in our youth group. It’s not a perfect translation, as none are, but my choice of the ESV was based on its literal translation philosophy and its level of readability. When doing exposition, it’s been my experience that the more literal translations (KJV, NKJV, NASB, ESV) are simply easier to navigate, closer to the original meaning, and easier to explain than more dynamic translations.

One particular area of pushback from the senior leader was an off-the-cuff comparison between the antiquated language that the ESV often uses and the more modern, contemporary language of the NIV, specifically as it relates to the ESV’s use of the word “behold.” The argument against the ESV, as I remember it, went something like this: “I seriously doubt that as you are driving around with your wife that you point something out to her and say ‘Behold!’ Instead, you say ‘Look!’” Senior leader for the win, as the kids say. FTW

That public rebuke aside, the content of the statement bothered me then and it bothers me now, particularly as I heard a statement recently by Dr. Wayne Grudem explaining the ESV’s use of the word “behold” over 1100 times. In regards to the abundance of usage he states “I love them.” In contrast, the latest NIV uses the word behold 1 time, in Numbers 24:17.

But what’s in a word, as the saying goes. Is there really that big of a difference between the words Behold and Look? Take the well-known passage from John 1:29 as an example comparison:

“The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” John 1:29 NIV

“The next day he saw Jesus coming toward him, and said, “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” John 1:29 ESV

Interestingly, the word used here ide carries with it much more significance than merely a visual observation. HELPS Word Studies points out that this Greek imperative literally means, “Be sure to see . . . !,” i.e. “Don’t miss this! It is an observable, objective fact!” Additionally, Strong’s concordance and Vines Expository Dictionary imply that this word involves a spiritual perception, again not merely the outward sight with the eyes that the word “look” carries with it.

So then, is there significance in the ESV’s decision to use the word “behold”? Clearly there is. Behold is pregnant with meaning and intensity that the word “look” simply cannot convey. In the example above, the Apostle John is not merely saying “”Look,” as in visibly observe, “the Lamb of God”. He is calling attention to Christ that people should behold, literally to spiritually perceive and embrace the Lamb of God and pay attention to who He is and what He says.

Wayne_Grudem_Photo_2014Grudem comments on the ESV translation committee’s decision to retain the use of behold:

“I find one of the primary advantages of the ESV to be more literal accuracy in the details of a translation. This is evident in the ESV’s use of “behold” in Exodus 2:6, a word which the HCSB, NIV and NLT all omit. But it translates a word in the text, the Hebrew word hinneh. In earlier translations (KJV, ASV, RSV), the word “behold” was found many times. It was the common translation used for the Hebrew word hinneh in the Old Testament and the Greek word idou in the New Testament. Both words simply mean something like “Pay attention – what follows is especially important or surprising!” Early in our translation work on the ESV, our committee discussed what to do about “behold.” We realized that in some cases there was an alternative such as “look!” or “listen!” and in a few cases that was what we used. But in hundreds of other cases, neither “look” nor “listen” seemed quite suitable (as in Exod. 2:6 above). We also found that some modern translations had just decided to leave Hebrew hinneh and Greek idou untranslated in many places where “look” or “listen” did not seem to fit (the HCSB, NIV, and NLT simply fail to translate it here). But we believed that all the words of God are important, and we did not want to leave hinneh and idou untranslated.

After a lot of discussion, we concluded that there simply was no other English word that meant, “Pay attention to what follows because it is important or surprising.” But the word “behold” still carried that meaning in English. We realized that people didn’t often use the word “behold” in conversation today, but we also recognized that almost everyone knew what it meant. It was in people’s “passive” vocabulary rather than in their “active” vocabulary. So we decided to retain “behold” as the common translation that we would use for hinneh in the Old Testament and for idou in the New Testament. We were striving for literal accuracy in the details, and we recognized that these words conveyed meaning for the original reader, meaning that we did not want today’s readers to miss. Therefore readers will find “behold” 1,102 times in the ESV. Often it seems to me to add dignity and strength to important verses in the Bible, such as the following: Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. (Isa.7:14 ESV)

Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world! (John 1:29 ESV)

Behold! I tell you a mystery. We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed, in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trumpet. (1Cor. 15:51-52 ESV)

Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and eat with him, and he with me. (Rev. 3:20 ESV)

I have come to really enjoy the “beholds” in the ESV. They make me pay attention to what follows and ask why the author put emphasis here. And they seem to me much stronger than the great variety of alternatives that other translations use when they do translate hinneh or idou at all. For instance, in Revelation 3:20 (see above) other translations have a variety: “Listen!” (HCSB). “Here I am!” (NIV). “Look!” (NLT). It seems to me that “Behold, I stand at the door and knock” is much stronger, and more consistent.

In addition, now I actually notice “behold” from time to time in contemporary English, whether it be in a shop window with a sign that says “Behold: New low prices!” or an ad on TV that says something like, “Behold! The new Honda sedan!” This example also shows one reason I don’t put too much stock in statistical counts of word frequency such as the Collins Word Bank that was used by the NIV translators. No doubt it would show “behold” to be uncommon in modern English. But if we ask, “How did they say it back then?” we find the need to use “behold” quite frequently, because there is no other single word in English today that means, “Pay attention—what follows is important or surprising.”[1]

If that’s not compelling enough, then perhaps the song below might help (excuse the ad at the beginning). Though far from inspired Scripture, the use of behold certainly carries the same emphasis that the ESV translators were trying to convey.  After all, what would it sound like if the chorus were, “Look, our God”? Not quite the same resounding emotion.

 

[1] http://www.waynegrudem.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/The-advantages-of-the-ESV.pdf

Bucket Drops 9/9/11

In light of this weekend’s 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, as would be expected there are a lot of blogs and news stories devoted to remembering that tragic event this weekend.  Below, I’ve included a couple, with some other followup news.

9/11 Fueled N.Y.’s Church Planting Movement – The Baptist Press discusses some of the Church Planting and Church growth increases that took place after 9/11.  Personally, I remember the prayer services in the days after and the focus on returning to “religion”.  The article states that 40% of Manhattan’s churches were started after 2000.  The article goes on to say that while the “spiritual temperature” of New York hasn’t increased, attention has definitely been on N.Y. church planting post 9/11.

9/11 and the Rise of New Calvinism – Trevin Wax poses the question of whether 9/11 played a role in the resurgence of Calvinism and Reformed Theology.  Among his rationale for this discussion is that 9/11 “forced the ‘problem of evil’ to the forefront of theological discussions.”  A worthwhile read.

Evangelicals left off 9/11 Memorial – Justin Taylor shares a link to a post by Carl Trueman which responds to the outcry of Frank Page, President of Southern Baptist Convention Executive Committee who shared disappointment over the lack of Evangelical inclusion in the 9/11 “interfaith” memorial at the Washington National Cathedral. Trueman asserts that evangelicals, more pointedly Southern Baptists, should be thankful they were not included, for they would’ve had to “compromise their orthodoxy and Protestant identity.”  I agree, the other groups represented (Episcopals?) there are not praying to the same God of the Bible that “evangelicals” do.  Unless of course Rick Warren was leading the prayer, then he could make it all inclusive, like he did hereBut he has his own service planned just blocks away.

A word about Bible translationsHere is an excellent post on translation philosophies.  Remember we looked briefly at these differences in this post .  This article goes more in-depth.  Here is an excellent summary statement from the article on “What are the advantages of a church choosing an essentially literal translation?”

“The primary advantage is that preachers, teachers, and church people will have the confidence that their Bible gives them the equivalent English words for what the authors of the Bible actually wrote. They do not need to wonder at every point where translation ends and commentary begins. They do not need to worry that important material has been omitted from the original.”

In that post I linked above, I made reference to a booklet written by Kevin DeYoung on why his church switched to the ESV.  Here is the online .pdf version of that booklet. http://static.crossway.org/excerpt/why-our-church-switched-to-the-esv/why-our-church-switched-to-the-esv.pdf

Finally, a video with Paul Washer discussing what it means to “confess with your mouth that Jesus is Lord.”

Isaiah 40:15a “Behold, the nations are like a drop from a bucket, and are accounted as the dust on the scales.”

Which Bible Version is Right for Me

Perhaps with all the different versions out there these days, you’ve asked yourself this very important question.  Maybe your response in the past has been, “Why does it matter, don’t all Bibles say basically the same thing?” a fair and intelligent question to ask.  I would venture to say that the majority of people fall into 3 categories with respect to the Bible version they use 1) The KJV and 2) The version of their local church 3) A gift.  The first group is likely exclusive to the KJV because of tradition, either it’s what they grew up reading or what their parents read.  The second group has most likely chosen their Bible based on the version used at the church they attend.  While neither group is wrong, it does beg the question, “Have they done their due diligence to research Bible translations for themselves and then choose the one they think is right for them?”  In this post, we’ll look briefly at two major errors in the world of Bible translations and how they should impact your selection of the right version for you.

When I started teaching a Bible study at my current place of employment, I began to realize how frustrating it can be to lead a serious study with multiple Bible versions being used, most of which were not a “word-for-word” translation (more on that in a minute).  Prior to beginning the study of Ephesians, I thought it necessary to discuss these differences and provide information on the various translations in order to avoid the “My Bible says this” game, which essentially pits version against version and muddies the water for understanding what the Lord wants to communicate through His word.  In having this discussion, it became clear that many people do not realize the major differences between translations.  The following chart is helpful to point out these differences (my apologies on the origination).

Note on this chart the translations range from the Interlinear, a “word-for-word” version to the Message, which is classified as a “thought-for-thought” version, but is really no Bible translation at all (more on that later).  The philosophy behind the word-for-word, or formal equivalency translation, is to maintain as close as possible to the original language manuscript, which would be Hebrew and Aramaic for the Old Testament and Greek for the New Testament, essentially placing the focus on the original structure.  This is why, for instance, that the New American Standard Bible (NASB) would be considered the “most literal” English translation, but lacks smooth sentence structure.  As you can see on the chart, the English Standard Version (ESV) attempts to maintain that level of literalness, but increases the readability that comes from a more modern language than say the King James Version (KJV) or New KJV (NKJV).   

The intention of the thought-for-thought translation, or what’s called dynamic equivalency, is accessibility over structure, meaning an attempt to make the version more readable vs. maintaining the original language structure and word usage.  This isn’t a trivial decision and if taken too far is where translations can begin to get into trouble and become “loose”.  The reason is because when a translation deviates from a more literal, word-for-word philosophy, words get omitted and more translation liberties can be made.

Take for instance the passages from the ESV and The Message below:

“5 For those who live according to the flesh set their minds on the things of the flesh, but those who live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit. 6 For to set the mind on the flesh is death, but to set the mind on the Spirit is life and peace.” Romans 8:5-6 ESV

“5 Those who think they can do it on their own end up obsessed with measuring their own moral muscle but never get around to exercising it in real life.  Those who trust God’s action in them find that God’s Spirit is in them-living and breathing God! 6 Obsession with self in these matters is a dead end; attention to God leads us out into the open, into a spacious, free life.” Romans 8:5-6 Message

The first major difference in these passages is that the ESV retains the word “flesh”, which serves to support the Apostle Paul’s distinction of the flesh vs. the spirit made in Romans 6 and 7.  The Message implies that the problem is moral will-power, not an inherent sinful nature.  Secondly, note that The Message says to “trust God’s action in them” while the ESV reads to “live according to the Spirit set their minds on the things of the Spirit”.  The first implies a passivity in sanctification, while the latter rightly commands believers to “live” by the Spirit and “set” their minds on the Spirit.  Finally, in verse 6 we see that the more literal ESV translation reads “to set the mind on the flesh is death” while the loose paraphrase of Eugene Peterson’s The Message says, “obsession with self in these matters is a dead end.”  While it may soothe the conscious of the reader to see that “obsession” with the flesh is a “dead end” the biblical truth is that the “mind set on the flesh is death”, meaning spiritual death and separation from God, not merely a dead end.  In fairness to this discussion, The Message is a paraphrase of the Bible, but has been marketed as a viable translation, which clearly it is not.  Its author Eugene Peterson is likewise culpable by making no attempt to correct this error or to distinguish his work as an attempt by man to explain what God’s Word says/means.  For more information on this see Tim Challies’ blog post on the translation philosophy of Eugene Peterson. http://www.challies.com/bible/eugene-petersons-philosophy-of-bible-translation

We’ve looked at an example from both ends of the spectrum, but what about one right in the middle, perhaps from the most popular version available the NIV.  Let me state, that as the chart above shows, a thought-for-thought translation, the NIV is not as loose as some of those on the far right.  It has been a reliable translation for over 30 years.

But right off the bat we run into problems because the NIV was designed to be continuously updated to reflect modern language changes, so as a result we have the original, the NIV1984, the TNIV, and the newly released NIV 2011.  It should be noted that other versions of the NIV will no longer be published or supported, now that the NIV 2011 has been released.  Below is a passage from Romans 3 out of the NIV 1984 (which most of us either personally have or have in our churches) and the corresponding passage from the ESV.

“God presented him as a sacrifice of atonement, through faith in his blood.  He did this to demonstrate his justice, because in his forbearance he had left the sins committed beforehand unpunished-“ Romans 3:25 NIV1984

“Whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith.  This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins.” Romans 3:25 ESV

Now upon first reading, it may not seem like a big deal that “sacrifice of atonement” is used by the NIV instead of “propitiation”.  But, if you’ve followed along with the posts here over the last couple of months, you would know that propitiation is a key word, one that must be dealt with in understanding the atonement and that its use has significance in understanding the justice of God.  The NIV makes this same choice in Hebrews 2:17, 1 John 2:2, and 1 John 4:10.  You also need to know that propitiation was actually omitted from several of the more modern “translations” as a liberal attempt to downplay, disregard, and otherwise remove the idea of penal substitutionary atonement, led chiefly by C.H. Dodd. (1) (2) (3)  This is just one example of our first translation problem, namely the omission of words from the original language manuscripts.

Our second major problem reared its head in 1952 with the publication of the Revised Standard Version (RSV), based on the King James Version and its update of 1901 the American Standard Version (ASV).  As you can see from the chart above, the RSV was a more literal translation, so where’s the problem you may be asking.  Well, many felt it was agenda driven with regard to some liberal theological biases.  It should be noted, that following along this same line as the RSV, i.e. from the KJV, is where the ESV was born.  These agenda driven biases from the 1950’s peaked in 1989 with the publication of the New RSV (NRSV).  The NRSV took a more liberal approach to translation and had their way with gender issues (1).

Similarly, in 1995, Zondervan published its update to the NIV 1984 and changed its name to Today’s NIV (TNIV), but included gender issues of its own.  The TNIV was considered so poorly translated with its liberal, feminist agenda that it was a colossal failure.  Many top theologians outright rejected the TNIV, including the Southern Baptist Convention who condemned it and ruled for So. Baptists churches to inform their congregations of the inherent dangers. (4) Which brings us to the latest Bible translation available today, the new NIV or NIV2011.  Many have seen this latest version as an attempt by publishers/translators to correct the failed TNIV and restore the reputation of the NIV.  While this is a highly contested academic debate, research from the Council on Biblical Manhood and Womanhood provides statistical analysis of the changes from the TNIV to the NIV2011.  Their research indicates that 75% of the gender translation issues that were raised with the TNIV remain unchanged with the NIV 2011.  Enough change to make it a separate version, but hardly an adequate response to a version that is nearly unanimously rejected (except by Rob Bell).  It’s likely that for this reason, the Southern Baptist Convention has followed suit with their decision on the TNIV to the new NIV 2011 as well. (5) For more comprehensive data from the CBMW, see here: http://www.cbmw.org/Resources/Articles/An-Evaluation-of-Gender-Language-in-the

So what is a person to do with this information?  First, understand that although no English translation is perfect, all Bible versions have not been created equal and while the intent to keep the basic message is the same, some of the more “loose” translations are woefully inadequate.  Second, realize that the difference between more literal, “word-for-word” translations versus a more dynamic, “thought-for- thought” version can often result in the omission of key words.  Third, sometimes, such as in the cases described above, those dynamic translations can be too heavily influenced by societal changes and agenda.  We can debate whether a “language update” is necessary after just 27 years (NIV 2011), but altering original phrases and meanings is non-negotiable.

In short, which Bible version is right for you?  Choose a more literal translation as your primary reader and if you prefer the “thought-for-thought” versions, use them for support and understanding of the other.  A good parallel Bible might help you make the transition to reading and understanding more literal versions.  Below I’ve included several resources, including a readibility chart (grade level) for multiple versions.

Today’s post was largely written a week or so ago, but today Dan Phillips from Pyromaniacs blog wrote the following post on the NIV to ESV change by Kevin DeYoung’s church.  It is a well-written article based on a review of DeYoung’s pamphlet, Why Our Church Switched to the ESV: http://teampyro.blogspot.com/2011/08/booklet-review-why-our-church-switched.html

References: 

1 http://evangelicalbible.com/why.htm#

2 http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/natureatone.html

3 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propitiation

4 http://www.bpnews.net/bpnews.asp?id=12731

5 http://www.sbc.net/resolutions/amResolution.asp?ID=1218

For more information on translations, including the NIV 2011 controversy see the articles below:

http://www.cbmw.org/Resources/Articles/Data-Supporting-CBMW-Review-of-2011-NIV

http://www.usatoday.com/news/religion/2009-09-01-bible-translation_N.htm

http://www.bpnews.net/bpnews.asp?id=35663

http://www.christianpost.com/news/new-bible-for-public-release-changes-jesus-son-of-man-to-the-human-one-52232/