Tag Archives: Resurrection

Book Review: Scandalous – The Cross and Resurrection of Jesus

Scandalous, by D.A. Carson (PhD, Cambridge University) and published by Crossway is a well-written, clear exposition of 5 Scripture passages that detail the cross and resurrection of Jesus Christ.  As Carson states in his Preface, “nothing is more central to the Bible than Jesus’ death and resurrection” and this is precisely the focal point of his book.  Dr. Carson begins his book with a look at Matthew 27:27-51 in Chapter 1 entitled: “The Ironies of the Cross.”  In classic Carson style, he brings out the following paradoxes from his look at this passage: 1) The man who is mocked as king – is king 2) The man who is utterly powerless – is powerful 3) The man who can’t save Himself – saves others 4) The man who cries out in despair – trusts God.  Of note in this chapter was John 2:19 “Jesus answered them, ‘Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up’” to which Carson adds:

“The point is that under the terms of the old covenant, the temple was the great meeting place between a holy God and his sinful people.  This was the place of sacrifice, the place of atonement for sin.  But this side of the cross, where Jesus by his sacrifice pays for our sin, Jesus himself becomes the great meeting place between a holy God and his sinful people; thus he becomes the temple, the meeting place between God and his people.  It is not as if Jesus in his incarnation adequately serves as the temple of God.  That is a huge mistake.  Jesus says, ‘Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up.’  It is Jesus’ death, in his destruction, and in his resurrection three days later, that Jesus meets our needs and reconciles us to God, becoming the temple, the supreme meeting place between God and sinners.  To use Paul’s language, we do not simply preach Christ; rather we preach Christ crucified.”

Chapter 2 was most significant for me because it brought to my attention an oft-read passage from Romans 3:21-26, but one which is of supreme importance.  So much so that Carson titled this chapter, “The Center of the Whole Bible.”  Here Dr. Carson does some of his best expositions from the book and he adds a strong statement that “the hardest truth to get across to this generation is what the Bible says about sin.”  The central question of humanity is how a sinful man can be just before a holy God.  In summary, this passage answers that question by detailing the substitutionary atonement of Jesus Christ.  Dr. Carson highlights 2 key terms which are critical to understanding not only this passage, but the centrality of the cross in the entire Bible: Redemption and Propitiation.  To Redemption, Carson states that until recently it was always considered economic language and this is how the Greco-Roman world would have understood the term, as in the redemption of slaves.  Carson points out that Romans 3:24 says Christians have been redeemed from slavery to sin and are now slaves of Jesus Christ (see Romans 6).  But, he asks, “How does this work?  In what sense, then, are we redeemed?  What has freed us?  The answer: God has presented Christ as a propitiation.”     

“Propitiation”, “expiation”, “sacrifice of atonement”, and even “remedy for defilement” are all terms used by various translations, but propitiation is the best.  Carson defines propitiation as the sacrificial act by which someone becomes favorable.  He then takes a paragraph to explain the pagan application of the word, which refers to offering a sacrifice for the purpose of making the gods propitious or favorable.  Carson then sets out to define the other related terms, mentioned above, and follows to expiation.  This term actually stands in contrast to the definition of propitiation of making someone favorable in that it “aims to cancel sin.”  The object of propitiation is God Himself.  The object of expiation is sin, which is cancelled.  Carson concludes, “Expiation refers to the cancelling of sin, and propitiation refers to satisfying or setting aside God’s wrath.  The particular word used in Romans 3:25 is used most commonly in the Old Testament to refer to a propitiating sacrifice that turns aside God’s wrath.”

In this chapter, Carson introduces objections to the meaning of propitiation brought on in the 1930’s by C.H. Dodd.  Dodd argued for the meaning of expiation versus the propitious act of God, because he believed in the pagan nature of propitiation (previously mentioned) and said it could therefore not apply to God.  Carson states that he misunderstood the personal nature of God’s wrath and was wrong to separate the nature of expiation and propitiation, whereas biblically they “hang together.”  As Carson writes, “In Christian propitiation, God the Father sets Jesus forth as the propitiation to make himself propitious; God is both the subject and the object of propitiation.  God is the one who provides the sacrifice precisely as a way of turning aside His own wrath.  God the Father is thus the propitiator and the propitiated, and God the Son is the propitiation”

Chapter 3 is an exposition of Revelation 12 and is entitled, “The Strange Triumph of a Slaughtered Lamb.”  Here Carson seems to approach the cross from an eschatological (end time) point of view encouraging believers in the face of future opposition.  This is a beneficial chapter to help challenge the reader’s view of their millennial position.  The concluding applications drawn by Carson as they relate to society are 1) Analyze culture biblically and theologically, not merely sociologically and psychologically.  2) Use the weapons that Christ has provided, weapons based on Christ’s atoning death.  

In Chapter 4, “A Miracle Full of Surprises” Dr. Carson highlights John 11:1-53.  This is the familiar passage of Lazarus’ resurrection.  The purpose of this chapter is to show that in the midst of despair Christ draws attention to Himself.  “In our deepest loss, we need more than friendship and a listening ear – though they are wonderful.  We need more than mere arguments – though in some cases good arguments stabilize us.  We need the reality of God Himself – God as he has spectacularly and definitely disclosed himself to us in the person of his Son.  He will require of us that we focus our attention on him, both for this life and the one to come.”  Dr. Carson concludes his discussion on the scandalous nature of the cross and resurrection with an exposition of John 20:24-31 in chapter 5, “Doubting the Resurrection of Jesus.”  Here Carson confronts the nature of doubt and counters it with true, genuine belief in Jesus Christ.      

Scandalous is an accessible book, regardless of theological knowledge or background, and is a commendable read to anyone wishing to better understand the cross and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

A Look Back at Resurrection Sunday

This past weekend Christians everywhere celebrated Resurrection Sunday, Easter, as it has become commonly known, the day marked as the Resurrection of our Lord and Savior Christ Jesus.  Perhaps in your church service you recalled the wonderful Resurrection passages of Mark 16, Matthew 28, or Luke 24, no doubt standard sermons preached in churches throughout the world.  Perhaps the majority of overflowing Easter Sunday churches could recite the facts of these passages by memory, likely both believers and non-believers.  But there is so much more that the Bible teaches on the death and resurrection of Jesus, so much more that we aren’t taught, lest it be deemed offensive or challenging to our minds.  This post won’t be sufficient to cover all of these, but there are a few passages we’ll review that we rarely if ever hear preached. 


I remember when Mel Gibson’s movie The Passion was released it brought quite a bit of controversy and debate with regard to who was responsible for Jesus’ death, i.e. the Jews who cried out crucify Him or the Romans who were the ones physically driving in the nails.  Maybe even each of these roles was discussed in your own Easter services or programs this past weekend.  But today, we are going to briefly look at who was ultimately responsible for the death of Jesus and it might surprise you, especially if you’re not familiar with these passages.


In Isaiah 53 the prophet details the plan and purpose for Christ’s death on the cross and in verse 10 we get our first insight into Who was responsible.  “Yet it was the will of the LORD to crush him; he has put him to grief.”  Isaiah 53:10 ESV This is an absolutely amazing revelation by Isaiah, that Christ’s death on the cross was the will of the Lord, not that of Pilate or the Romans, not Judas, not the Pharisees or Jewish people, but God.  Earlier in this chapter we read, “Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows; yet we esteemed him stricken, smitten by God, and afflicted. But he was wounded for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities; upon him was the chastisement that brought us peace, and with his stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned-every one-to his own way; and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all.” Isaiah 53:4-6 ESV Jesus’ death was not a backup plan for sin, it was the only plan and it was prepared before the foundation of the earth.  God sent His Son Jesus to die for our sins and it was those sins that put Him on the cross.  Yet it was God’s purpose in the plan of salvation to save sinners from His own wrath through the death and resurrection of His Son Jesus.  The Apostle Paul proclaims in I Corinthians 5:21 ESV, “For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.”  He, God the Father, made Him, God the Son, to be sin who knew no sin.  God’s plan, God’s implementation, and God’s will. 


We can see further support for the implementation of God’s plan in Acts 4:26-27 ESV where we read, “for truly in this city there were gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel, to do whatever your hand and your plan had predestined to take place.”  Herod, Pontius Pilate, Jews and Gentiles (Romans) alike were all part of God’s predestined plan.  This is not something to be taken lightly or to be trivial about, but to stop and bow in reverence to the almighty, sovereign God of the universe who loved us so much that He was willing to plan the death and resurrection of His Son, Jesus.  In doing so Jesus became the propitiation, or appeasement, for our sins that averts God’s own wrath and judgment of sin from believers to His only begotten Son.  “In this is love, not that we have loved God but that he loved us and sent his Son to be the propitiation for our sins.” I John 4:10 ESV  Not only this, but Jesus gave Himself willingly and was obedient to the Father’s will, even to the point of death, “And being found in human form, he humbled himself by becoming obedient to the point of death, even death on a cross.” Philippians 2:8 ESV


I don’t know the number of Easter services I’ve attended in my life, but I’ve never heard this passage from Isaiah preached on.  We cannot remove the role God played in Christ’s death lest we be left with no Gospel because there would be no power in Christ’s death to forgive our sins.  The truths of the Word of God are so breathtaking and humbling, yet if we fail to spend time seeking Him, we’ll miss out on knowing more about who He is.  The entire Resurrection weekend is about God’s plan to send Jesus to die on the cross for the sins of all those who believe in Him, to uphold His own glory by pouring out His righteous wrath on His own Son, whom He loves infinitely, for Jesus to be our substitute and pay our penalty of sin by His death, and for Jesus to raise Himself from the dead, conquering the one remaining enemy and with that giving believers the hope of eternal life in Him.  This is the Gospel and it should change our lives, change our hearts, it should make us stop in awe and wonder at the majesty of God, yet so many people disregard it and trivialize it, especially on Easter Sunday otherwise the churches would be just as crowded the following Sunday.  Don’t dismiss this dear friend, it’s not just a once a year celebration, it’s a lifetime of rejoicing in the atoning work of Christ Jesus on the cross.  Repent and Believe.


Matthew 21:42 ESV Jesus said to them, “Have you never read in the Scriptures: ‘The stone that the builders rejected has become the cornerstone; this was the Lord’s doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes’?

Romans 5:8 ESV but God shows his love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.