Tag Archives: Law

Sabbath Rest – Part 2

In our study of the Sabbath Rest, we must allow it to unfold progressively as God reveals it piece by piece, detail by detail.  In this way, we assure ourselves of a more rounded, Scriptural approach to understanding what the Sabbath means, and then eventually how it effects us today.  In our overview, we have seen various aspects of the theology of rest, which have brought us now to the topic of the Sabbath as given to Israel.  Introducing this for us in a recent post was Exodus 16, the familiar passage concerning God’s supply of manna (and quail), with the instruction for Israel to gather their bread each day, gathering extra on the 6th day and resting from labor on the 7th day.

In this post, we turn now to the giving of the law and the inauguration of the covenant with Israel, first in Exodus 20 where we find the codification of the Sabbath into law, given to Israel at Mt. Sinai and then the renewal of the covenant in Deuteronomy 5.  Our first passage is below

“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your male servant, or your female servant, or your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates.11 For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.

Here we have the Fourth Commandment and interestingly it provides a transition from the commandments focused Godward (#1-4, vertical) and the commandments focused manward (#5-10, horizontal).  Again, we see the concept for six days of work, which is just as commanded as the one day of rest, followed by the Sabbath observance  on the seventh day.  The widespread, nondiscriminatory nature of the observance, which simply includes “no work”, extends from the individual, to family, to servants, to livestock, to even the foreigner among you.

In verse 11, we arrive at the purpose for this observance, For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.”  Clearly, the first stated purpose (though remember the implied purposes from Exodus 16) for the Sabbath observance is it’s relationship to the Sabbath instituted by God at the conclusion of creation.  As a summary, we again find no mention of individual or corporate worship.  We see no command requiring any sort of religious duty or exercise.  It is by all accounts a call to remember the sabbath through resting from labor on the seventh day, the day which God had sanctified and set apart at Creation.  

In our second passage, from Deuteronomy 5, the context for this passage finds the people of God, still led by Moses, on the plains of Moab, near Jericho, just outside of the Promised Land of Canaan (Deuteronomy 34:1-8; Numbers 36:13).  The time period represented in this 5th book of the Torah, occurs roughly forty years after the Exodus from Egypt, i.e. about forty years after the first giving of the law cited above.  To this point, the rebellious generation has died out, except for Moses, Joshua, and Caleb, leaving behind the children of the Exodus generation to inherit the promised land (Deuteronomy 1:34-40).

In the fifth chapter of the book, Moses recounts the law, given at Sinai, for this new generation of Israelites.  The Fourth Commandment, the Sabbath, is recited as follows:

12 “‘Observe the Sabbath day, to keep it holy, as the Lord your God commanded you. 13 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 14 but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, you or your son or your daughter or your male servant or your female servant, or your ox or your donkey or any of your livestock, or the sojourner who is within your gates, that your male servant and your female servant may rest as well as you. 15 You shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Egypt, and the Lord your God brought you out from there with a mighty hand and an outstretched arm. Therefore the Lord your God commanded you to keep the Sabbath day. Deuteronomy 5:12-15

In this more recent statement of the commandment, we notice similar language with some nuances and then some definite additions.  First, we see the call to observe the Sabbath, whereas before the command was to remember.  The point is the same, it is a day to call the mind to a particular duty, namely to keep it holy.  Then we see the command, six days of labor, but the seventh is a Sabbath to the Lord.  Additionally, we see that this directive applies to the individual, children, servants, animals, and the sojourners among the community.  It is a comprehensive command for the entire community, man, woman child, beast, and even the outsider dwelling among the community.

However, after stating the prohibition against work for all members of the community, remember that the original commandment was founded on the creation Sabbath established by God in Genesis 2.  Here we would expect an identical statement, but that is not the case.  Instead, we see a foundation upon the Israelite exodus from Egypt.  Observe the Sabbath because on it you shall remember you were a slave in Egypt and God redeemed you with an outstretched hand.

These two passages form the basis for the law and commandment given to Israel to observe the Sabbath Day.  In them we find their foundation upon the creation Sabbath and upon the Israelite redemption from Egypt.  These reflections do not stop merely upon the acts of God, but are reflections upon God Himself.  The Sabbath draws attention to God as Creator, Sanctifier, and Redeemer, in addition to Sustainer and Provider that we saw in our previous passage from Exodus 16.  The Sabbath, as God has thus far revealed, is concerned with both His person and His work.  Yet in neither passage do we find any command for individual or corporate worship.  Nor do we find any command for any religious duty on this day.  It is simply a command to rest from labor, recalling God the Creator, God the Sanctifier, and God the Redeemer.  Further, it builds upon the passage from Exodus 16, where the people were taught to rely upon God as Provider and Sustainer.


In this series:

The Practice of Sinning


In the first letter by the Apostle John to the saints in Asia, likely a circular letter to include the church at Ephesus, it has been well noted that he provides a series of tests or checks and balances for the Christian life.  The centrality of these tests are: knowledge of God, growth in obedience, and love for others.  In chapter 3, we see obedience approached from the negative side with an exhortation to avoid the “practice of sinning” in order to affirm the genuineness of faith.  Note the passage below:

Everyone who makes a practice of sinning also practices lawlessness; sin is lawlessness. You know that he appeared in order to take away sins, and in him there is no sin. No one who abides in him keeps on sinning; no one who keeps on sinning has either seen him or known him. Little children, let no one deceive you. Whoever practices righteousness is righteous, as he is righteous. Whoever makes a practice of sinning is of the devil, for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the works of the devil. No one born of God makes a practice of sinning, for God’s seed abides in him, and he cannot keep on sinning because he has been born of God. 10 By this it is evident who are the children of God, and who are the children of the devil: whoever does not practice righteousness is not of God, nor is the one who does not love his brother.” 1 John 3:4-10

Here we may observe the Apostle making 4 crystal clear assertions regarding those who make a practice of sinning, the first of which will be addressed in this post, and is the observation that those who make a practice of sinning are practicing lawlessness found in verses 4-5.  We might say that practice is to give oneself over to repetitive or habitual action.  This does not have in mind sinning in general, which we all do (1 John 1:8), rather it is a reference to the ongoing patterns or practice of sin.  In other words, the life that is marked or defined by the downward spiral of sin.

Additionally, we read that all sin, not simply that committed habitually, is equated with the breaking of  God’s holy law.  Generally speaking this is God’s moral law, the requirements of which were written on the hearts of men from Adam onward (Rom. 2:14; conscience), summarized and codified in the 10 Commandments at Sinai, and written on the hearts of all those who through the blood of Christ have been redeemed and brought into the New Covenant by repentance and faith (Jer. 31:33, Ezek. 36:26-27, Heb. 8:10).

Inherently within this statement is the assertion that the Christian life is to be one marked by obedience.  It has oft been assumed, in error, that the law and subsequent obedience to it, are to be eschewed from the life of a believer.  As is evident from this and many other passages in the New Testament, the law clearly has a place in the life of a believer, lest we fall into the error of antinomianismhttp://www.presenttruthmag.com/archive/XXVIII/28p1-11.htm

We would do well to remember the words of our Lord, “If you love me, keep my commandments” John 14:5.  Our Apostle draws upon the language from his gospel in this very epistle when he writes, “And by this we know that we have come to know him, if we keep his commandments. Whoever says “I know him” but does not keep his commandments is a liar, and the truth is not in him.” 1 John 2:3-4.  Furthermore, as we alluded earlier, one of the great promises of the New Covenant is God writing His law on the hearts of those who have been redeemed by the shed blood of Christ.  We may conclude that the importance of obedience to God’s law in the life of the believer is paramount and to walk contrary to it is sin, namely lawlessness.

This first exhortation is supported by two clauses, one a reaffirmation that sin is lawlessness to help drive home the point and two that Christ, who is sinless, appeared to take away sin.  This statement is meant to contrast Christ with sin and subsequently sin with believers. It is meant to offer a sober alert to the reader that where sin exists, it is contrary to Christ because 1. He is sinless and 2. He died to take away sins.  Therefore stop sinning, more on that later.

Far too often we are given to light thoughts of sin and are often ignorant of the sinful patterns of behavior that flare up in our lives from time to time.  In our passage above, the exhortation is clear:  the practice of sinning is contrary to the life of a believer because it is contrary to God’s holy law, and subsequently to God Himself.  It is contrary to the life of Christ and should be contrary to the life of a believer who is united to Him.  And finally, it is the reason for which Christ died.

Thanks be to God that by His mercy He sent His holy Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, who fulfilled the law on behalf of all those who would repent of their sins and believe in Him.  Christ, the only sinless One, the only One who upheld the law on every point has through His obedience credited, or we might say imputed, the righteousness that He earned to the account of those who have trusted in Him.  As we have seen, the law still has a place in the life of a believer as a rule and guide, but it is no longer a heavy yoke on the neck.  It is not a means to life, i.e. it is not a means to either justification or sanctification, each of which come only through Christ our Savior, but instead should be a delight (Romans 2:22, et.al.)


*Antinomian image credit: http://www.presenttruthmag.com/archive/XXVIII/28p1-11.htm  Note: reference to this source does not imply endorsement.

Were the Old Testament People Saved? – The Witness of Romans 4


If you were able to watch the video I posted a couple weeks ago, which attempted to answer the question of salvation prior to Christ’s death, then you know that the theologian in the video dismissed any notion of Abraham’s salvation citing Genesis 15 and referencing Paul’s use of this passage in Romans 4 as simply an illustration, “In the same way God made a promise to Abraham He makes a promise to us.” But is that Paul’s (and ultimately the Divine Author’s) purpose in citing Abraham in Romans 4?

Let’s examine the context.

After the Apostle Paul’s introduction and brief prologue concerning the power of the Gospel for salvation to both Jew and Greek, the book of Romans begins with a general condemnation of the non-Jewish world, commonly called Gentiles or Greeks (though perhaps more helpfully known as the nations or pagans) for their vile sins and idolatries committed against a Holy God.

As Paul transitions into chapter 2, the focus shifts from the pagan world to those who had experienced the privileges and blessings of God, commonly identified as the Jews. Woven throughout chapter 2 is condemnation of the Jewish world with an eye still toward the pagan world before bringing them both under condemnation of God’s wrath for their sins in chapter 3 of Romans. Note the following verses:

What then? Are we Jews any better off? No, not at all. For we have already charged that all, both Jews and Greeks, are under sin, 10 as it is written:

“None is righteous, no, not one;
11     no one understands;
no one seeks for God.
12 All have turned aside; together they have become worthless;
no one does good,
not even one.”
13 “Their throat is an open grave;
they use their tongues to deceive.”
“The venom of asps is under their lips.”
14     “Their mouth is full of curses and bitterness.”
15 “Their feet are swift to shed blood;
16     in their paths are ruin and misery,
17 and the way of peace they have not known.”
18     “There is no fear of God before their eyes.” Romans 3:9-18

With both Jews and Gentiles under the condemnation of God for their sins, it therefore begs the question how can anyone be saved? Paul provides the answer as he shifts to faith in Christ as the basis for justification, not the law.

21 But now the righteousness of God has been manifested apart from the law, although the Law and the Prophets bear witness to it— 22 the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe. For there is no distinction: 23 for all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God, 24 and are justified by his grace as a gift, through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus, 25 whom God put forward as a propitiation by his blood, to be received by faith. This was to show God’s righteousness, because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins. 26 It was to show his righteousness at the present time, so that he might be just and the justifier of the one who has faith in Jesus.” Romans 3:21-26

Verse 22 sets forth the thesis that the Old Testament, here summarized as the Law and the Prophets, bears witness to gospel of Jesus Christ, namely “the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ for all who believe” and that redemption through the blood of Jesus Christ is by faith alone. This really sets the groundwork for Chapter 4.

Important in our discussion of Abraham, and Old Testament salvation in general, is the placement of verse 25, “because in his divine forbearance he had passed over former sins.” These former sins, or perhaps more importantly those who were guilty of these sins, were those under the Old Covenant, prior to Christ just as is seen in Hebrews 9:15. There they are identified as the called, lest there be any notion of Old Covenant universalism.  God then becomes just and the justifier of the one who has faith, even in Old Testament times!

At the conclusion of chapter 3, the Apostle sets forth God as the God of both Jew and Gentile, uniting them together in Him and showing that it is by faith and not adherence to the law, namely via circumcision, that one is justified. This is the background and context for Chapter 4, which begins with an introduction of Abraham within the context of justification by faith, not on the basis of adherence to the law.

The introduction here of Abraham cannot be understated. He stands as the patriarch of Israel and is the physical father of the Jewish people; though as Paul asserts in his epistle to the Church at Galatia and here in this chapter, he is the father of the spiritual people who are in Christ, whether Jew or Gentile (Galatians 3:29).

We have already seen that Romans 2 supports this notion by saying, “25 For circumcision indeed is of value if you obey the law, but if you break the law, your circumcision becomes uncircumcision. 26 So, if a man who is uncircumcised keeps the precepts of the law, will not his uncircumcision be regarded as circumcision? 27 Then he who is physically uncircumcised but keeps the law will condemn you who have the written code and circumcision but break the law. 28 For no one is a Jew who is merely one outwardly, nor is circumcision outward and physical. 29 But a Jew is one inwardly, and circumcision is a matter of the heart, by the Spirit, not by the letter. His praise is not from man but from God.”

This passage really serves as a prelude to the ensuing discussion in Chapter 4 regarding Abraham because any understanding of the relationship between circumcision, obedience, and faith must begin with Abraham and this is precisely what the Apostle does.

“What then shall we say was gained by Abraham, our forefather according to the flesh? For if Abraham was justified by works, he has something to boast about, but not before God. For what does the Scripture say? ‘Abraham believed God, and it was counted to him as righteousness.’” (Romans 4:1-3) Notice that verse 3 cites Genesis 15:6, the verse that’s in question from the aforementioned video and the basis for our understanding of whether Abraham was saved or not.

Remember that in the video, the objection was that Abraham is not exercising belief in God or belief that God exists, because he already had that according to Dr. White, and that his justification here is generic and has nothing to do with being restored into a right relationship with God. Is it as Dr. Randy White has posited? Namely that Abraham is just used as an example of how we should believe in God’s promises. In other words, is Abraham merely a pattern for our good, moral obedience? OR is there something far more being asserted here, perhaps a theological foundation for understanding how one is justified (being brought into a right relationship with God) on the basis of grace alone through faith alone in Christ alone (A phrase Dr. White explicitly denounced) apart from works of the law. That last phrase CANNOT be understated because it is critical to our understanding of salvation in the Old Testament.

Again, not to pick on Dr. White, but he is representative of the view that asserts that salvation in the Old Testament required something more than just believing, as he clearly stated in the video. His particular view, that of classic dispensationalism as he self-identified, sees salvation in the Old Testament (if we can even squeeze that out of him) as reliant upon obedience to the law. That is precisely contrary to what the Apostle Paul is saying in Romans 4. Below is the remainder of the chapter (in italics) with my comments interspersed in bolded blue:

Now to the one who works, his wages are not counted as a gift but as his due. And to the one who does not work but believes in him who justifies the ungodly, his faith is counted as righteousness,

We have to fundamentally understand Paul is saying that for the one who works, i.e. obeys the law in the hopes of being justified, his wages (what he earns) are not a gift, but requires payment because salvation cannot be earned. In clear terms, the more you work, the more you owe.

Secondly, note the contrast with the “one who does not work but believes in him who justifies the ungodly”. Clearly then justification (for sake of clarity – salvation) is on the basis of faith ALONE, not on the basis of obedience to the law. Finally, note that the one who believes, “his faith is counted as righteousness.” Who was the prototypical example of this? Abraham! Paul’s argument is that believers today are justified on the basis of faith in the exact same way that Abraham was.

The word counted, used both in verse 3 (the Genesis quotation) and here in verse 5 is better translated imputed or credited. It carries with it the idea of a financial transaction, a ledger book if you will. On the basis of faith, righteousness is therefore “credited” to the account of the believer. Though developed more in the discussion below, this idea of imputation is particularly addressed in chapter 5 of Romans.

It’s important to note here that faith does not merit righteousness, but as has been seen in Chapter 3, the object of faith is Christ and it is His righteousness that is credited to the believer. In this way, it is an alien righteousness, as Luther so famously expressed it. Paul next moves from his example of Abraham’s justification by faith alone, which he concludes is likewise true of all believers, to King David.

just as David also speaks of the blessing of the one to whom God counts righteousness apart from works:

“Blessed are those whose lawless deeds are forgiven,
and whose sins are covered;
blessed is the man against whom the Lord will not count his sin.”

Again, the point is proven, though this time with David the argument is made on the negative side of imputation. David here is said to have spoken of the “one to whom God counts righteousness apart from works”, so this is Paul’s argument restated but the answer from Psalm 32:1-2 is on the negative side of imputation, particularly in regards to sin. He states blessed are those who lawless deeds (sin – 1 John 3:4) are forgiven, those whose sins are covered, the man whom the Lord will not count (impute) his sin. Further discussion on this can be found in Romans 5 where we see the sins of the believer are imputed to Christ, but the clear implication is that God does not count/impute/credit sin to the believer, but does count/impute/credit righteousness of Christ to the one who has faith.

The argument next returns back to discussion of circumcision, as representative of the law, by again looking to Abraham.

Is this blessing then only for the circumcised, or also for the uncircumcised? For we say that faith was counted to Abraham as righteousness. 10 How then was it counted to him? Was it before or after he had been circumcised? It was not after, but before he was circumcised. 11 He received the sign of circumcision as a seal of the righteousness that he had by faith while he was still uncircumcised. The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised, so that righteousness would be counted to them as well, 12 and to make him the father of the circumcised who are not merely circumcised but who also walk in the footsteps of the faith that our father Abraham had before he was circumcised.

Here, Paul returns again to his discussion on Jew/Gentiles and advances it on the basis of circumcision/uncircumcision by asking the question of whether the blessing of righteousness is counted to the former only? He answers again with Abraham and concludes that his justification occurred in Genesis 15, prior to his circumcision which came later in Genesis 17. The obedience that he exhibited in circumcision was a seal of the “righteousness that he had by faith” prior to his circumcision. Similarly, baptism is a step of obedience reflecting the righteousness that believers today have. Now, should there be any discussion on the viability of paedobaptism, that path is cut off by verse 11b, “The purpose was to make him the father of all who believe without being circumcised, so that righteousness would be counted to them as well.” Abraham is the father of believers, not believers and their children. The continuation of the trail blazed by the imputation of righteousness to Abraham flows directly to all believers who are likewise shown to be justified by faith alone apart from works of the law. Abraham is not merely a moral example of obedience, but the pattern of justification by faith alone throughout redemptive history.

13 For the promise to Abraham and his offspring that he would be heir of the world did not come through the law but through the righteousness of faith.

14 For if it is the adherents of the law who are to be the heirs, faith is null and the promise is void. 15 For the law brings wrath, but where there is no law there is no transgression.

16 That is why it depends on faith, in order that the promise may rest on grace and be guaranteed to all his offspring—not only to the adherent of the law but also to the one who shares the faith of Abraham, who is the father of us all, 17 as it is written, “I have made you the father of many nations”—in the presence of the God in whom he believed, who gives life to the dead and calls into existence the things that do not exist.

Note here that Abraham’s offspring is comprised of both Jew AND Gentile, both the circumcised (who walk by faith as he did) and the uncircumcised who believe likewise.

18 In hope he believed against hope, that he should become the father of many nations, as he had been told, “So shall your offspring be.” 19 He did not weaken in faith when he considered his own body, which was as good as dead (since he was about a hundred years old), or when he considered the barrenness of Sarah’s womb. 20 No unbelief made him waver concerning the promise of God, but he grew strong in his faith as he gave glory to God, 21 fully convinced that God was able to do what he had promised. 22 That is why his faith was “counted to him as righteousness.” 23 But the words “it was counted to him” were not written for his sake alone, 24 but for ours also. It will be counted to us who believe in him who raised from the dead Jesus our Lord, 25 who was delivered up for our trespasses and raised for our justification.

As the Apostle concludes this section, it is clear that the same faith that saved Abraham (and David!), saves us today. The same righteousness (which is Christ’s as we read in Romans 3 & 5) was credited to Abraham as believers today. His faith did not merit righteousness, though Abraham was saved and his salvation was by grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone. He believed in the promise, we believe in the fulfillment of that same promise.

Perhaps without even knowing it, the views expressed in the video mentioned above undermines the entire basis for the Reformation and the doctrine of justification by faith alone (Sola Fide).  It is clear that the argument of Abraham here is not made as a pattern for our moral behavior to exhort us to believe the promises of God, but is instead to show the prototype for justification by faith alone apart from works of the law. Should we exhibit faith like Abraham did?  Absolutely, but as has been shown, this is not the central purpose for writing Romans 4.

Salvation in the Old Testament, on the basis of the truths set forth by the Apostle Paul under divine inspiration of the Holy Spirit, was exactly the same as it is now. By grace alone, through faith alone, in Christ alone. There is simply no room for disagreement on the issue, lest we subvert the glory of the Gospel and create a path for more than one way of salvation.